Architects in Chennai

Architects in Chennai

1.618 Architecture & Design

62. G A Architects P Ltd
77. Matrix

90. P Ravi Architects P Ltd

112. Sarks

Architects design all kinds of buildings. They design schools and skyscrapers. They design hospitals and hotels. They also design churches, train stations and plain old regular houses.

Any building that is used by people was probably designed by some Architects in Chennai

Okay then, but what does the word “design” mean? A design is simply a plan. Before constructing a building, an architect needs to draw a plan of the building. Sometimes Architects in Chennai will make a cardboard or plastic model of the building.

The building is then built by a construction company which follows the directions of the plans for the building. The architect will closely supervise the construction company to make sure that the building is built according to the plans.

Okay then, but but what does an architect do when he or she draws up a plan?

Architects in Chennai have to thnk of many things before they draw up the plans for a building. First they have to think about what the building will be used for. How many people are going to use the building at the same time? What types of activities will these people do in the building?

An office building will need lots of small rooms for offices. A school will need many medium-sized rooms for classrooms. And a train station will need one larger room for hundreds of people to pass thru at the same time.

All of these building must be built so that they can be used efficiently by everyone who walks through their doors. When architects discuss what the building will be used for, they talk abut the “function” of the building.

But the function of a building is just one of many things an Architects in Chennaihas to think about when designing a building. Good architects also spend a lot of time making sure a building is safely designed, and making sure the building will last for many years.

A building that is not safely designed could catch on fire or fall down on itself.

Architects in Chennai have to design building so that people can escape from the building in an emergency. Of course, some emergencies, such as earthquakes or tornadoes, destroy even the safest buildings.

A few years ago an Architects in Chennai had a real surprise when one of the buildings he designed collapsed under the weight of a foot of wet snow. The building was a sports arena with a large, curved roof. The heavy snow put so much pressure on the roof that the roof collapsed. Luckily nobody was in the sports arena at the time.

Besides thinking about the function and safety of a building, architecs also spend time creatively thinking about how they want the building to look. Just as a painter decides which paints to put where in a painting, an architect decides where to put the rooms, walls, and open spaces in a building.

Just as different painters have different styles of painting, different architects have different styles of designing. One architect might like to use a lot of circles and curves in his or her buildings. Another architect might like to design buildings that look sleek and flat.

So architects have to be good artists and good scientists when they design a building. The building must be pleasant to look at, pleasant to work in and strong enough to be safe from most natural disasters.

Trying to do all these things at the same time is part of the challenge and excitement of being an architect.

Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/Architects in Chennai/

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  • Chennai,  originally  known as Madras Patnam, was located in  the  province  of Tondaimandalam,  an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the  Pennar  river of Cuddalore. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram.Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century A.D. by Tondaiman Ilam  Tiraiyan, who  was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. It  is  believed  that Ilam Tiraiyan must have subdued Kurumbas, the original inhabitants of the region  and  established  his rule over  Tondaimandalam.  

    Subsequent  to  Ilam Tiraiyan, the region seemed to have been ruled by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi.The  Chola  occupation  of Tondaimandalam was put to an end by the  Andhra Satavahana  incursions  from  the north under their King  Pulumayi  II.  They  appointed chieftains to look after the Kancheepuram region. Bappaswami, who is considered  as  the  first Pallava to rule from Kancheepuram,  was  himself  a chieftain (of the tract round) at Kancheepuram under the Satavahana empire in  the beginning  of  the 3rd century A.D., The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, became independent rulers of Kancheepuram and its surrounding areas.

    Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century the closing years of the 9th century except for the interval of some decades  when the region was under Kalabharas.  Pallavas were defeated by the Chola under Aditya-I by about 879 A.D. and  the region was brought under Chola rule.Pandyas  under  Jatavarman  Sundara Pandya rose to power and  the  region  was brought  under Pandya rule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in  1264 A.D.Pandya’s rule over this region lasted a little over half a century followed  by Bahmini kingdom with the extension of Delhi Sultanate under Khilji dynasty especially under the rule of Alauddin Khilji, a pioneer of all revenue worksDuring 1361, Kumara Kampana II, the son of Vijayanagar King, Bukka I conquered and  established  Vijayanagar rule in Tondaimandalam.

    The  Vijayanagar  rulers appointed  chieftain known as Nayaks who ruled over the different  regions  of the province almost independently.Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, an influential chieftain under Venkata  III,  who was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city, gave the grant of a piece of land  lying between the river Cooum almost at the point it enters the sea  andanother  river known as Egmore river to the English in 1639. On this piece  of  waste   land   was  founded  the  Fort  St. George  exactly for   business  considerations.  In honour of Chennappa Nayak, father of Venkatapathy  Nayak, who  controlled  the entire coastal  country from Pulicat in the north  to  the Portuguese  settlement of Santhome, the settlement which had grown  up  around  Fort St. George was named after Chennapatanam. 

    The older area called the Madraspatnam lay  to  the  north of it.  Later on, the intervening space  between  the  older northern site of Madraspatnam came to be quickly built over with houses of the new settlers (as the two expanded) and that the two villages  became  virtually one town. While the official centre of the settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras Patnam to the combined town. Golkonda  forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646 and brought Chennai  and  its  immediate surroundings under his control. On the fall  of Golkonda  in  1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors  of Delhi. 

    Firmans  were  issued by the Mughal Emperor  granting the  rights  of English company in Chennai. In  the  later  part of the seventeenth century, Chennai  steadily progressed  during  the  period of Agency and under many Governors. During the  regime  of Governor  Elihi Yale (1687-92),the most important event was the formation  of  the institution of a mayor and Corporation for the city of Chennai. In  1693,  a  perwanna was received from the local Nawab granting  the  towns  Tondiarpet,  Purasawalkam  and Egmore to the company. Thomas Pitt  became  the Governor  of Chennai  in  1698 and governed  for eleven  years.  This  period  witnessed  remarkable  development  of  trade and  increase  in  wealth.  

    The important  events during this period were the blockade of Chennai by Daud  Khan  and  its repulsion and the acquisition of additional suburban villages by  the English.  Thiruvottiyur,  Vysarpadi, Kathivakkam, Nungambakkam  and  Satangadu  were  made  as a free gift to the English in 1708. In 1735,  Chintadripet  was taken  over  and in 1742 Vepery, Perambur and Periamet were presented  to  the British. Nicholas Morse was the Governor from 1744 to 1746. The most important event  during his time was the outbreak of war between England and France  and  the  consequent struggle for supremacy between the French and the  English  in South  India. Chennai was captured by the French in 1744 but consequent on  the treaty  of  peace of Aix-La-Chapelle, Chennai was restored to  the  English  in 1749. 

    George Pigot was the Governor for the period from 1755 to 1763. The period  is remarkable  for the fact that the Company form a trading  corporation,  owning isolated  towns, forts and factories, became a ruling power  controlling  vast territories. Charles  Bourchier  became Governor in 1767. During his period Hyder  Ali  who usurped  the  Sovereignty of Mysore joined hands with the Nizam and  began  an offensive  on Chennai. In 1761, a treaty was signed between Hyder Ali  and  the Company  for  an  alliance  and  mutual  restitution  of  the  conquests.  The Governance of the Carnatic became the responsibility of the Chennai  Government which could not maintain a large army without the revenue of Nawabs. In  1763,the  English  got the district of Chengalpattu known as Chennai Jagir  for  the maintenance of the army.Lord  Macartney  took  charge of the Chennai Government  in  1781.  

    During  his period,  Chennai was turned into an important Naval base. Major General  Medows became Governor in 1790. The position of the English was made secure in  South India. the elimination of other foreign power and settlement of the limits  of native  territory  gave stability and paved the way for an era  of  commercial development.  In  1792, in a new treaty Mohammed Ali handed  over  the  entire management  of the Carnatic to the English and accepted in return  a  pension. Another  important event of this period was the outbreak of Mysore war.  Tippu was  killed in 1799 and the whole of Carnatic ceded to the British.  

    Thus  the supremacy  of  the  English in South India was established.  The  present  day territorial limits of the city existed in the shape of scattered villages  for centuries  before  the advent of the British. In the process of  growth,  many villages got agglomerated into a single unit. The shape and extent of the city which existed during 1939-40 was reached even during the opening years of 19th century. The period in between 1803 to 1827 represents consolidation and development of institutions.  

    Sir Edward Elliot was the important Governor of  Chennai  during this period. He appointed a Judicial Commission with Munro as its President in 1814.  Several  reforms  in  the  administrative  system  were  made  by   the Commission.  Sir Thomas Munro became the Governor in 1820 and  continued  till 1827. He tried his best to improve literacy. He initiated English education in Chennai  and established a body called Board of Public Instructions to  improve and direct public education. Important  improvement made to Chennai city during the first half of  the  19th century  was  the  progress  made in the  establishment  of  institutions  for professional and technical education. 

    School of Industrial Art was started  in 1850,  Civil Engineering College in 1834 and Madras Medical College  in  1835,etc.  The  Madras University was started in September 1857.  The Chennai  High Court  was created in June 1862. The Railway Company in Chennai was  formed  in July  1845.  the first construction work began on 9th June 1853 and  in  1858,South Indian Railway was formed having Chennai as the Railway Headquarters. Lord  Hobart who was the Governor from 1872 to 1875 initiated  Chennai  Harbour project. The Congress party came to life during the period 1881-90. The Indian National Congress held its session in 1887 at Chennai.

    The First Governor of Chennai in the 20th century was Lord Ampthill (1901-06).  Sir Arthur Law-by was the Governor from 1906-1911 and Lord Pentland from  1912-19. The  important Landmarks during this period were the establishment  of  Chennai Electric Supply Corporation in 1906 and opening of Indian Bank in 1907. During  1934 and 1936 for a short period, two Indians Sir M.D. Usman Sahib and Sir  K. Venkatareddy Naidu acted as Governors of Chennai.  In 1937, the Ministry of Shri C.  Rajagopalachari  came  into power for two years.  The  influence  of  the Governors on the administration considerably diminished. The British  departed on  15th  August

  • Historical Events at a Glance

    1639         Madras founded .
    The English get Madras Patnam  from Ayyapa Naicker.
    1640         Francis Day and Cogan landed with 25 Europeans.
    Foundation laid for Fort St.George.

           Triplicane annexed to the city.
    1678         Foundation laid for St. Mary’s Church in Fort St. George.
    1679         St.Mary’s Church Completed.
    1688         Madras City Municipal Corporation inaugurated.
    1693         Egmore, Purasawalkam and Tondiarpet annexed to the City.

    1708         Thiruvottiyur, Nungambakkam, Vyasarpady,
    Kottivakkam and Sathangadu  –
    Five neighbouring Villages annexed;
    wall built around Black Town.
    1711         First Printing Press erected in Madras.
    1735         Chintadripet was formed.
    1742         Veperi, Perimet, Perambur and Pudupakkam annexed to the city.
    1746         The French return Madras to the English;
    Santhome and Mylapore annexed to the City.

    1758         French Commander Lawly siege Madras.
    1759         French siege ended.
    1767         Hyder Ali’s first invasion.
    1768         Chepauk palace built by Nawab of Arcot.
    1769         Hyder Ali’s Second invasion.
    1777         Veerappillai appointed as First Kotthawal-
    Hence the name Kotthawal Chavadi.
    1783         Fort St. George repaired and attains the present shape.
    1784         The First Newspaper –Madras Courier.
    1785         First Post Office.
    1795         Triplicane Big Mosque-Walajah Mosque built.

    1817         Madras Literary Society founded.
    1826         Board of Public Instructions founded.
    1831         First Commercial Bank –Madras Bank.
    First Census in the City Population
             Madras Club founded.
    1834         First Survey School inaugurated –
    Later developed as Engineering College.
    1835         First Medical College –
    Later became Madras Christian College.
    1841         Ice House was built –
    Ice brought from America through ships was stored here;
    Later named as Vivekananda House.
    1842         First Light House.
    1846         Pachaiappan School; Later Pachaiappa’s College.

    1851         Museum formed
    1853         Zoo formed.
    1855         University Board formed.
    1856         First Railway –Royapuram to Arcot.
    1857         Madras University founded.
    1864-65    Presidency College built.
    1868         Attempt to protected water supply.
    1873         First Birth Registered.
    Madras Mail Newspaper founded.
    Cosmopolitan Club founded.
    1874         University Senate house built.
    1876-78    Great Famine – Buckingham Canal dug.
    1878         The Hindu Newspaper founded.
    1882         First Telephone.
    1885         Marina Beach Road formed.
    1886         Indian National Congress Meet at Madras.
    Connemera Public Library founded.
    1889         High Court Building foundation laid.
    1894         First Car –  Mr. A.J. Boag, Director of Parry&Co,
    drove the Car on City Roads.
    1895         First Tram Car.
    1899         First Tamil Newspaper-Swadesamitran.

    1905         Port Trust formed.
    1906         Indian Bank founded.
    King Institute, Guindy founded.
    1914         Water mains and drainage formed.
    Street lights introduced.
    Kilpauk water works inaugurated.
    Endon bombardment-
    Endon German fighter Vessel bombarded the sea shore
    disappeared – First World War.
    1917         First Aeroplane;
    Simpson & Co., arranged for the trial flight.
    1924         School of Indian Medicine.
    1925         Loyola College
    First Bus Transport.
    1930         First Broadcasting Station founded at Ripon Buildings Complex.
    1934         First Mayor – Raja Sir. Muthiah Chettiyar
    1938         All India Radio formed and
    broadcasting from Ripon Buildings ceased.

    1942         Second World War – Evacuation of Madras.
    1943         Japanese Fighter Plane dropped bombs on City and disappeared.

    1946         Mambalam, Saidapet, Govt. Farm, Puliyur, Kodambakkam,
    Saligramam, Adayar and Alandur Villages which formed part of
    Saidapet Municipality were annexed to the city.

                     Sembiyam, Siruvallur, Peravallur, Small   Sembarambakkam
    and  Ayanavaram which formed part of Sembium Panchayat
    Board  were annexed to the city.

    Aminjikarai, Periyakudal, Maduvankarai Villages which formed
    part of  Aminjikarai  Panchayat Board were annexed.

    Part of Velacheri Village belonging to Velacheri Panchayat Board
    was also annexed to the city.

    1947         Indian National Flag Hoisted over Fort. St. George.
    1952         Nehru Stadium.
    1956         Gandhi Mandap.
    1959         Guindy Children’s Park.
    1969         World Tamil Congress.
    1971         Snake Park.
    1972         Madras Metropolitan Development Authority.
    1973         Madras Corporation Superceded.
    1974         Rajaji Mandap.
    Madras Television Centre.
    1975         Kamaraj Mandap.
    Valluvar Kottam.

    1976         New Light House.
    1977         Madras Metropolitan Water supply and Sewage Board
    Kanagam, Taramani, Thiruvanmiyur, Velacheri, Kodambakkam,
    Virugambakkam, Saligramam, Koyambedu, Thirumangalam,
    Villivakkam, Errukancheri, Kolathur, Kodungaiyur
    Panchayat areas annexed to the City;
    Madras reaches the present stage.
    1983         Zoo shifted to Vandalur.
    1988         Periyar Science Park
    Birla Planetarium.
    Madras Corporation’s Tri-centenary.
    Decentralisation of Administration.
    10 Circles formed.


    About Chennai


    The Beginnings of Madras

    The beginnings of the City of Madras go back to the earliest stages of English commercial enterprise in India. The English East India Company was started in 1600. Twelve years later a Trading House or Factory was built at Surat on the West Coast under the protection of the Mughal Governor of Gujarat. On the Coromandel Coast the English first attempted a landing at Pulicat. The place is about 25 miles north of Madras and its great backwater, the Pulicat Lake, afforded a safe shelter for the shipping of those days. But the Dutch, who were the bitter rivals of the English, had already been settled at the place and had the ear of the local Nayak. Hence the English found it impossible to ply their trade advantageously at that place. They then attempted to settle at Peddapalli or Nizampatnam, which was at the mouth of a small channel of the Krishna Delta. But the climate of the place was deadly to the English merchants and this settlement had also to be abandoned after a few years of hopeless struggle.

    Masulipatnam was the chief port of the Muhammadan Kingdom of Golconda. It was well protected from the monsoon winds and was the chief market for diamonds and rubies for which South India was then famous, as well as for the valuable chintz and painted cloths which are even now produced in large quantities in its neighborhood. The English, after some effort, secured the privilege of building a factory at this port. But they later abandoned their factory and crept away in a small boat to Durgarazpatnam (otherwise known as Armagaon) situated about 35 miles to the north of Pulicat. This place was a miserable port and was too poor to supply the calico cloth which the English wanted for export to Europe. But it was the only safe shelter for the English at the time and here they built a small fort and mounted a few pieces of cannon upon it. But trade did not thrive and the miserable English traders planned to go back to Masulipatam under the protection of a Golden Firman which the Sultan of Golconda was kind enough to give them. But Masulipatam was in the throes of a famine just then and in spite of every assurance of protection, English trade did not thrive at that place.

    The English pitch upon the Site of Madras

    With Masulipatam unprosperous and Armagaon hopeless, the English traders anxiously looked out for a new site that would be more propitious for them. Mr.Francis Day, the future founder of Madras, who was then a Member of the Masulipatam Council and the Chief of the Armagaon Factory, made a voyage of exploration in 1637 down the coast as far as Pondicherry with a view to choose a site for a new settlement. At that time the Coromandel Coast was nominally under the Rajah of Chandragiri who was a descendant of the famous Rayas of Vijayanagar. Under the Rajah, local chiefs known as Nayaks, ruled over the different districts. One of these Nayaks had given permission to the Dutch to build a strong fort at Pulicat where they had grown to be powerful enough to deal on equal terms with the Nayaks of the neighborhood.

    Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak ruled all the coast country from Pulicat to the Portuguese settlement of San Thome now included within the City of Madras. He had his head-quarters at Wandiwash and his brother Ayyappa Nayak resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, and looked after the affairs of the coast. It was probably this Ayyappa Nayak that made overtures to Day, inviting him to choose a site in the territory of his brother. The offer looked good; and Day wrote to Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site and examine the possibilities of trade there. The results of his personal inspection were apparently favourable; and he wrote that the calicos woven at Madraspatnam which was the place offered by the Nayak for the site of the proposed factory were much cheaper than those at Armagaon. Day secured a Grant (copies of which endorsed by Cogan, the Chief of the Masulipatam Factory, are even now preserved) giving over to the English the village of Madraspatnam for a period of two years and empowering them to build a fort and castle at that place. The Grant is dated August 1639.

    The English Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with the action of Mr. Day and resolved that he should proved again to Madras and contact the Nayak until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam (in java) could be obtained for their action.

    The chief difficulty, as usual with the English in those days, was lack of money. At last, in February 1640, Day and Cogan accompanied by a few factors and writers, a garrison of about 25 European soldiers and a few other European artificers, besides a Hindu powder-maker by name Naga Battan, proceeded to Madras and started the English factory. They reached Madraspatnam on the 20th of February; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place.

    Extent of their First Settlement

    The extent of land transferred to the English under the Nayak’s Grant is not found specified anywhere. But it was the whole area contained within the traditional village limits of Madraspatnam. This nucleus area appears to have extended along the coast from a point a few hundred yards north of the mouth of the Cooum River, right up to a little beyond the northern end of the present Geroge Town. In the interior, the area included the island ground on the west and its western line ran along the present Cochrane’s Canal, then known as the North River, right up to the north-western corner of the present George Town. To this area, surrounding villages were added from time to time in the customary British fashion.

    In those days, the Cooum River which had a winding course through the villages of Chetput, Nungambakkam and Chintadripet, had, as it still had a common outlet to the sea along with the North River at some distance to the south of the limits of the Madraspatnam Village. The North River (or Elambore River as it was called in those days) flowed parallel to and a mile distant from the coast along the western side of Madraspatnam Village. At the site of the present General Hospital, the river took a sharp bend to the east and, when near the sea, it again took another bend to the south; and it then flowed on for about three-fourths of a mile parallel to the shore and joined the Cooum at its mouth. The two streams formed a wide and shallow backwater at their joint outlet. At the point where the North River bent east, there was only a narrow neck of land about 300 yards in length that separated it from the Cooum as it curved towards the sea. At this point a cut was made several years after the foundation of the City, probably with the object of equalising flood levels; and thus the Island ground was literally converted into an Island.

    The site of the Fort planned by the English settlers was on the bank of sand between the North River and the sea, just in the southern end in the village of Madraspatnam and three-fourths of a mile north of the river mouth.

    The Building of the Fort by Day and Cogan

    he Fort was planned nearly square, with a bastion at each corner and the Factory House was in the centre of the Fort and was built diagonally to the square so that each face of the house opened on the gorge of a bastion. The building of the Factory House was taken up on March 1st, 1640. A portion of the structure was presumably completed by St. George’s Day (23rd April) of that year and the name Fort St. George was consequently given to the Fort.

    The bastions were first built and erection of the curtain walls connecting them proceeded more slowly as funds permitted. The whole Fort took fourteen years to construct and was finished only in 1653. It measured about 100 yards by north to south and by 80 yards east to west. On its northern and southern sides buildings and streets sprang up and constituted what came to be known later as the White Town.

    Indian merchants and artificers were attracted to the settlement and encouraged to build houses therein under a promise of exemptions from import taxes for a period of thirty years. It is said that within the first year of the life of the settlement, there arose some seventy to eighty substantial houses to the north and south of the Fort while in the village of Madraspatnam nearly four hundred families of weavers had come to settle permanently.

    Day had made himself personally responsible for payment of interest on the loans got for the building of the settlement. Charges of private trade were however brought against him and he was sent to England in 1641 to answer them. He successfully faced these charges and returned to the Coromandel Coast as Second-in-Council at Madras. Cogan had been meanwhile made the Agent of Madras. He remained in the settlement for more than three years during which time he nursed the Fort into some strength and the town into some measure of prosperity. He was also charged with extravagant expenditure on the fortifications and resolved in disgust to resign his position to Day and sail away. Day became his successor in the Agency in Madras but did not enjoy his position long. He also departed for England within a year of his assumption of the Agency (1644).

    Day had proposed and planned the settlement and secured the Grant of the Nayak for it. Cogan had been useful from the beginning and was mainly responsible for the erection of the Fort and for the colonization of the place. Both were taken to task by the Court of Directors of the English Company, Cogan for unauthorised expenditure and Day for private trading. The memory of neither is kept green in Madras whose foundations they helped to lay. “Neither Cogan nor Day is kept in memory by Statue, Portrait or Place name. Not even does the Secretariat Building in the Fort, the successor of the old Factory House, bear a tablet to commemorate the achievements of the joint Founders of Madras”.

    The Names Madraspatnam and Chennapatnam

    We saw the Damarla Venkatapathy and his brother Ayyappa gave the English the grant of Madras. The Rajah of Chandragiri was Venkatapathy Rayalu. From this Rajah the English got a confirmation of the Nayak’s Grant. Venkatapathy was succeeded by his nephew Srirangarayalu in 1642. To the new Raya, Thomas Ivy, the successor of Day in the Agency of Madras, sent Factor Greenhill on a mission which resulted in the issue of a new Grant to the English (copies of this grant are available now). It is dated October-November 1645. It confirmed the Grant of the Raya’s predecessor and empowered the English to administer justice and gave them an additional piece of land known as the Narimedu (Jackal-ground) which lay to the west of the village of Madraspatnam. All these three grants, viz., of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, Kind Venkatapathy and his successor Srirangarayalu, were engraved on gold plates but none of them is now extant.

    In Srirangaraya’s Grant of 1645 the Town of Madras is expressly called “Srirangarayapatnam, My Town,” and a distinction is made between the town of Madraspatnam and the new town growing round the Fort which is expressly called Srirangarayapatnam. The first Grant of Damarly Venkatapathy Nayak makes mention of the village of Madraspatnam. Both Venkatapathy and his brother Ayyappa desired that the name Chennapatnam should be given to the new Fort and settlement of the English after their father ChennappaNayak. Srirangarya desired that the name Srirangarayapatnam should be given to the Fort and settlement of the English in the place of Chennapatnam. The fact that the family of Damarla Venkatapathy, son of Chennappa, was disgraced by Srirangaraya, probably explains the reason why the Raya offered his own name to be given to the settlement and declared that it was a mark of his special favour.

    In all the records of the times a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing round the Fort. Thus we may say that the village of Madraspatnam existed under that name prior to the English settlement of 1639-40 and the site of Chennapatnam was that of modern Fort St.George. The original village of Madraspatnam lay to the north of the site of the Fort and within a few years of the founding of Fort St.George the new town which grew up round the Fort was commonly known to the Indians as Chennapatnam, either in deference to the wishes of Damarla Venkatapathy or because the site originally bore that name. The intervening space between the northern Madraspatnam and the Southern Chennapatnam came to be built over rapidly so that the two villages became virtually one town. The English preferred to call the two united towns by the name of Madraspatnam with which they had become familiar from the first while the Indians chose to give it the name of Chennapatnam. In course of time the exact original locations of Madraspatnam and Channapatnam came to be confused. Madras was regarded as the site of the Fort and Chennapatnam as the Indian town to the north.

    Origin of the Name Madras

    The origin of the name Madraspatnam has long been a puzzle. The name Madras occurs in many forms like Maddaraspatnam, Madras Patnam, Madraspatnam, Madrapatnam, Madrazpatnam, etc. According to one version there was a village of fishermen on the site, the headman of which was a Christian named Madaresan who persuaded Day to call the settlement after his own name. But we know that the name was in use even before the English came on the scene. Otherwise writers have derived the name from the term Madrassa ( a college) and think that there might have been an old Muhammadan College at the place; or there might have been a Church of St.Mary (Madre de Deus) at Madras prior to 1640, probably founded by the Portuguese of San Thome which had been in existence from the previous century and the church might have given name to the village; or there was an Indian rules, Maddarazu, who might have been some local chief in the region in the past after whom the village might have been named Maddarazpatnam.

    The Very Revd. Mgr. Teixeira, Bishop of Mylapore, has decently put forward a suggestion based on his discovery of some tombstone inscriptions that the name might well have been after Madras, a Portuguese family of the village and that the family gave their name to the place. Still another view is that Madras was so called because it produced a kind of calico cloth of the name. None of these seems to be very convincing, while the derivation of Madras from the Persian word Madrassa is somewhat fanciful. There is a curious resemblance between the names of the English Town of Madraspatnam, the southern Dutch Factory of Sadraspatnam at the mouth of the Palar river and the northern settlement of Durgarazpatnam (Armagaon).

    The First Years of Madras

    The growth of Madras in its first thirty years was all that could be desired. Very soon after the settlement was founded, a Hindu temple was constructed in the heart of the Indian village that grew up. It was dedicated to Chenna Kesava Perumal and built on part of the grounds of the present High Court. Thus the temple was coeval with the birth of the town. In 1646 and endowment was made to it by Naga Battan, the Company’s powder-maker; and two years later another endowment was made to it by Beri Timmana who is said to have assisted the English in building the settlement and who was employed as the Company’s broker and merchant. It is presumed that this Pagoda had twin shrines in it, dedicated to Vishnu (Chenna Kesava) and Siva (Chenna Mallesvara) even as its present day successor is. Besides these two Indians, we hear of Raghava Battan who was first living in the Portuguese settlement of San Thome and helped the English to get from the Nayak the site of Madras. A cowle (lease or grant in writing) was said to have been given to him by Cogan and Day appointing him the Kanakkupillai (Scrivener) of Madras in 1640 and it was later produced by one of his dependants in a claim that he put forward to the office.

    Within a few years after the English settled at Madras, the authority of the Rajah of Chandragiri disappeared. The Rajah himself was forced to flee to Mysore and the forces of the Sultan of Golconda came to occupy the region surrounding Madras. The Kingdom of Chandragiri was hemmed in one side by the advancing troops of Golconda and on the other by the forces of the Bijapur Sultan who invaded the Carnatic from the Mysore Plateau and occupied the coast between Jinji and Tanjore. Nawab Mir Jumla, who was the Prime Minister of Golconda at this time, played an important part in this conquest of the Carnatic. He was originally a famous diamond merchant and was said to be the richest subject in all India. He had in his service a number of European gunners and cannon-founders and well appreciated the advantages of European aid. The English at Madras lent him the services of their gunner and several of their best soldiers when he went to blockade San Thome in 1646. In return for this help he confirmed all the privileges that they had obtained from the previous Hindu rulers of the Country and also lent them a large sum of money free of interest.

    Thus the English contrived to maintain good terms with the Rajah of Chandragiri to the last and yet to preserve the friendship of the Mussalman, conqueror from the first, a characteristic worship of both the rising and the setting sun.

    Early Stages of the City’s Growth

    In 1652 Fort St.George was created a Presidency and its Agent came to be known as President. In those early years the Indian town was governed by three chief officials who were hereditary, viz., the Adhikhari, who dispenses justice, the Kanakkupillai, who assisted the Adhikari, and the Padda Naick, i.e., the Chief Watchman who was the head of the Talaiyaris and who kept order in the streets, arrested thieves and evil-doers and brought them to trial. Many Indians were merchants of the Company and the contractors for the supply of cotton cloth that was needed for export and for the sale of the European goods of the Company. The seniors among them were termed the Company’s Chief Merchants; and the agents and brokers of individual English merchants came to be later on known as Dubashes.

    From time to time, factious fights rose between the right-hand and left-hand castes of the City. Such factions were much prevalent in the country round Conjeeveram. In Madras the Beri Chetties, artisans, Cil-mongers, weavers and leather workers were the chief elements in the left-hand faction, while the Vellalas, the Arya Vysias (Komatis), the Vannias and the Adi-Dravidas belonged to the right-hand division. The grounds of quarrel were mostly with reference to the particular routes that the marriage and funeral processions of these castes should take, and the symbols and the trappings that should adorn their processions and pandals on occasions of festivity; and they were as ready to fall out with each other on the smallest provocation ‘ as Orangemen and Ribbonmen were in Ireland or the Montague’s and Capulets in Verona, or the clans in Scotland.’

    The earliest dispute between the castes seems to have occurred in Madras in 1652-53, which was settled by an award wherein the name of Chennapatnam first occurs in an official document. The result of this award was that the eastern half of the Hindu town came to be generally occupied by left-hand castes and the western half by the right-hand ones.

    For a long time the country round Madras was in a great turmoil on account of the rebellion of Mir Jumla against his Golconda master and also because of the general weakness of the Golconda Sultan who was finally destroyed by the Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb in 1687. During these troubled years, Madras was frequently threatened by the exactions of successive local chiefs who ruled over the Poonamalle region on behalf of the Muhammadans. The worst of them was Bala Rao who stopped the Indian traders coming to Madras, raised the customs duties they had to pay at the Great Mettah where there was a regular customs-house and thus increased the prices of grains and other provisions. On one occasion the Muslim troops entered the settlement and burnt some houses. Later, Madras had to encounter a regular siege for several months at the hands of Bala Rao and his colleague, Tupaki Krishnappa Naick. Fort St.George was reduced from the rank of a Presidency to an Agency, temporarily in 1655, owing to a fit of economy that seized the Directors of the Company at the time. However, it was restored to its Presidency status three years later; and this it has continued to enjoy ever since. The Dutch were envious of the growing prosperity of the City and both the Dutch and the Golconda Sultan had an eye on San Thome. On one occasion the English expected that San Thome would be ceded to them by the Portuguese instead of Bombay, for whose cession negotiations were then going on.

    Sir Edward Winter, Governor (1661-65), got a permanent agreement regarding the English right to Madras. Winter was a bold and bad man who imprisoned his successor in office, Fox-Croft, on the ground that the latter was of decidedly Puritanical and anti-Royalist tendencies and could be suspected of having made treasonable utterances against King Charles II. He was in enjoyment of his usurped authority for nearly three years and during all this time Fox-Croft languished in prison. Even when punishment finally came to him, he contrived to make his own terms and stayed on in Madras for a few more years after he was deposed. Fox-Croft, the unfortunate imprisoned Governor, was the first to he given the title of Governor of Fort St.George a title which has been transmitted to a long line of distinguished successors. The title came to be given by an accident, as it were. The Company’s letter constituting the Madras Agent and Council ‘Our Governor and Agent and Consul in Fort St. George’ and empowering them to execute judgment in all cases, civil and criminal, was occasioned by the difficulty that arose as to the jurisdiction of the Madras officials over capital cases. This difficulty was solved by the new title and ‘ to modern occupants of the gubernatorial chair it is probably unknown that they owe their designation to a Madras murder.’

    San Thome

    Madras and San Thome were generally on friendly terms. The latter fell into the hands of the Sultan of Golconda in 1662 and was taken possession of by the French ten years later. But they were not to enjoy it for long. It once again went back into the hands of Golconda and the English urged the Sultan to demolish the fortifications of the place as they were afraid that the French might recover the Fort either by force or by purchase. One important consequence of the French surrender of San Thome was the withdrawal of Martin, the Captain of the French soldiers, with a few followers to Pondicherry, where he founded the famous settlement that was to have a glorious, but short-lived, prominence in the next century.

    The fame of San Thome rests upon its close association with the Apostle St. Thomas, who is declared to have suffered martyrdom at St.Thomas’ Mount and to have been buried originally at San Thome, that it, in Old Mylapore, part of which now lies under the encroaching sea. There is not much doubt that there existed at the place a Christian colony from the early centuries of the Christian era. It was known to the Arab travellers and geographers of the ninth and tenth centuries as Betumah, that it, the house or Church of St. Thomas. And from this word was derived the name San Thome. To this Church it is said that King Alfred the Great of England sent some emissaries about 883 A.D. Subsequently, Persian merchants who were Nestorian Christians, established a Church of their own at the place, built a Chapel over the tomb of St. Thomas and a monastery on the top of St. Thomas’ Mount. The place was visited by Marco Polo, the famous Venetian traveller, who touched the Madras coast towards the close of the thirteenth century. But the town decayed later on; and its revival was the work of the Portuguese who settled therein in 1522. As the Portuguese were rebuilding the old Chapel, they stumbled on the grave of the Apostle, besides which they built a small church which has now grown into the San Thome Cathedral.

    The Luz Church situated a mile to the west of the Cathedral is associated with an ancient tradition, that some mariners saw a light beckoning to them from that place when they tossed about in a storm near the coast. Steering towards this guiding light, they landed safely, and following it came to the spot where the church is built. The church is thus dedicated to ‘Our Lady of Light’. But it was not built in 1516 as the inscription on its base claims but only a few decades later.

    St. Thomas Mount and Little Mount

    At St. Thomas’ Mount the Portuguese came across the famous Bleeding Cross, that is, a Stone Cross bearing an Old Pehbir inscription, with some spots on it resembling, blood stains; and a church was erected at the place, the Stone Cross being built in the wall behind the Altars. The inscription is similar to that engraved round the Crosses found in some of the Syrian Christian churches on the Malabar Coast. In those days a beacon fire was lighted nightly on the Mount for the benefit of mariners. In the church itself, which is dedicated to our Lady of Expectation, there is a picture of the Holy Virgin and Child which is believed to be one of the seven portraits painted by St. Luke and brought by St. Thomas to India.

    Between St. Thomas’ Mount and Madras and a little to the east of the southern end of the Saidapet Bridge is the Little Mount or Chinnamalai. This contains a cave to which St. Thomas is said to have fled when he was pursued by his persecutors. A church was built in 1551 at this place by the Portuguese. There is pointed out here a cleft in the rock where St. Thomas caused a spring of fresh water to gush forth, by hitting the stone with his staff, and the multitude who came to hear his preach quenched their thirst therein. The water was believed to have had healing properties and the church itself is dedicated to Our Lady of Health. Both the Big and Little mounts are outside the limits of Madras City, But the Big and Little Mounts are outside the limits of Madras city. But they have been closely associated with Madras both in the past and in the present epoch.


    Mylapore, a village adjacent to San Thome to its west, has always gone hand in hand with the latter and was included in its jurisdiction. It is a place of ancient importance and has long been famous as a Siva Shrine. It is closely associated with Thiruvalluvar, the great author of the Kural, and also with the activities of the Saiva Nayanar, the great Gnanasambandar. The temple of Sri Kapaleesvarar contains a sculpture depicting one of the miracles wrought by Gnanasambandar. There are bronze statues within the temple of the 63 Saiva Nayanmars, in whose honour a grand festival is conducted annually. Mylapore is also associated with one of the Vaishnavite Alvars. After the Portuguese town of San Thome came into being Mylapore was absorbed in it. When San Thome fell into the hands of the Mussalmans, a number of its rich Portuguese merchants settled in Madras. The English themselves endeavoured to get that place for a nominal rent from the Sultan of Golconda. After the latter’s kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Empire in 1687, the Mughal Governor of the Carnatic threatened to develop it at the expense of Madras, frequently visited and resided in it and built a rampart round the town. The place continued under the rule of the Mussalmans with very little trade and a decaying population till 1749 when it was taken possession of by the English in the name of their protégé, Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah.

    First Attempts at Conservancy

    The gradual growth of Madras, though interrupted from time to time, was steady and vigorous. It was when Governor Streynsham Master was in power (1678-81) that the first serious attempt was made at the conservancy of the streets. A scavenger was appointed who was empowered to collect a house-tax and to remove the dirt and filth of the town and draw up a roll of the houses. This post was held by a civil servant of high rank. Watchmen were appointed for going round the streets in the nights. Tavern-keepers, places of entertainments and others had to be licensed. The Indian inhabitants had long fought vigorously against tax saying that it was their privilege to be exempted from any taxation.

    Master also framed rules for the better administration of justice. Two English official were appointed as Choultry Justices to administer justice to the Indian inhabitants and their number was increased subsequently. The Governor himself began to sit as a Judge thus forming an Appellate Court.

    St. Mary’s Church in the Fort

    It was also in Master’s time that the church of St. Mary within the Fort was built. The foundation was laid on Lady’s Day in 1678 and hence the Church was named St. Mary’s in honour of the Blessed Virgin. It was finished in 1680 and was consecrated on the 28th of October that year. It stands much the same as it was when built, except for the spire and the tower which were subsequently added. It is full of mementoes of men who have helped to make Madras history; and its narrow yard is literally paved with tombs of various ages and with inscriptions in several languages. The stones were removed from the stately tombs which were erected over the graves of dead Englishmen in the old English burying-place of the settlement which lay in the present Law College compound.

    The Vestry of the Church was organised at the same time and it continued to exist down to 1805. It conducted a Charity School which subsequently became the nucleus of the Male and Female Orphan Asylums. After Master’s time there was a reorganisation of the Police arrangements in the so-called Black Town which had grown up close to the White Town and which occupied the site of the present northern glacis of the Fort, part of the western glacis and the grounds of the Law College and the High Court. During the Governorship of Mr.Yale (1687-92) a Mayor and Corporation were instituted in the City by a Charter of the Company under permission from King James.

    Acquisition of Suburban Villages

    It was in Yale’s time that the Mughul authority spread over the Carnatic. He was very anxious about the safety of Madras from Mughul injury. And he applied to the Nawab Zulfiker Khan, the Mughal General for the free Grant of the villages of Egmore, Purasawalkam and Thondiarpet. These villages were at first rented out and were directly taken over by Government in 1720. They were known in the English records of the time as the “Three Old Towns”. Triplicane was the earliest acquisition and came first into English occupation in 1668 though it was resumed a few years later by the Mussalmans. It was only in 1672 that Triplicane was definitely given over to the English for an annual rent of fifty pagodas. Including Triplicane these three villages were known as the ‘Four Old Towns’. Shortly afterwards, the English petitioned for permission to occupy five other villages in the vicinity composing of Tiruvatiyoor, Kathiwakam, Nungambakkam, Vyasarpady and Sathangadu. These places were given over by a Mughal firman in 1708 and they were hence forward known as the ‘Five New Towns’.

    Wedged in between Egmore and Purasawalkam which had been acquired by the English, were two small villages, viz., Periamet where the Mussalman authorities collected tolls, and Vepery, which were acquired by the English only in 1742; along with Vepery the Company got Perambore, Pudupakkam, Ernavore and Sadyan Kuppam together with a confirmation of the right of coining Arcot rupees and pagodas. San Thome and Mylapore continued to be under Mussalman rule till 1749 when Madras was restored to English after three years of occupation by the French who captured it in 1746. Soon after they got back Madras, the English contrived to occupy San Thome in the name of their new ally, Nawab Muhammad Ali who was opposed by Chanda Saheb, the ally and champion of the French.

    Governor Thomas Pitt

    From the time of Governor Yale down to the outbreak of war with the French in 1746, the growth of Madras was continuous and was seen not only by the expansion of its trade and wealth but also in the steady political power of the English. Of the Governors of the period the most famous was Thomas Pitt who was originally a bold interloper and in the opinion of the Directors, a desperate fellow. Pitt was Governor for the unusually long term of 11 years-1698-1709- and his term of office proved to be the ‘Golden Age’ of Madras. He resisted the demands of the Mughal Nawab, successively acquired the five new villages and built fortified walls round the Old Black Town. It was in his time that the Island ground was embanked, drained and improved. He also provided for an accurate survey of the City with a view to the allocation of definite streets and quarters for the right and left-hand factions. Copies of his map and plan are now available. They show us that the Old Black Town was more than a mile and a half in circumference and various gates in its walls led into the suburbs of Muthialpettah to the north and Peddunaicken-pettah to the west. A canal ran along the present Broadway which separated Black Town and Muthialpettah from Peddunaickenpettah.

    Weavers’ Villages-Collettpettah and Chintadripettah

    As trade increased the number of weavers and painters had steadily to be increased. Governor Collett (1717-20) founded a new pettah near Tiruvottiyur which was called, as the inhabitants desired, after him as Collettpettah. The inhabitants were mostly weavers and painters of cloth which the Company required for export to Europe. The present suburb if Washermanpet lying to the north of George Town grew up about the same time. The Company had in their employment a large number of washers, bleachers and painters of cloth which came from the weavers’ looms. A large open space and plenty of good water were necessary for their work. They were first settled in Peddunaickenpettah to the north; but they complained that the water of the river was not pure. They were subsequently removed to the north of the Black Town where the ground was rich in fresh springs. The place where they settled was, therefore, known as Washerman Town and its present appellation of Washermanpet is apt, as in the case of Collettpettah, to convey a wrong meaning as to its origin. The growth of these suburbs indicates a period of great prosperity in the cotton trade which was the chief investment of the Company. The Dubashes and chief merchants of the Company engaged in the supply of cotton goods to the Company rose to great prosperity. One of them be name Alangatha Pillai founded and built the Ekambareswarar Temple, and another of them, Sunkurama had a large garden in the bend of the Cooum river south of Periamet which was taken over in 1735 for a new weavers’ village known as Chintadripettah. By that time Sunkurama had fallen into disgrace and was succeeded by his colleague Thambu Chetty as the chief merchant. Government resolved in October 1734 to erect a weaving town in the site of Sunkurama’s garden and to permit only spinners, weavers, washers, painters and the necessary attendants of the temple to settle in the village. A cowl was granted on these terms and Bemala Audiappa Narayana helped in the peopling of the village, which grew to contain nearly two hundred and fifty families within two years after its foundation.

    The Carnatic fell into confusion after 1740 when the Mahrattas invaded it. Several disputed successions to the Nawabship occurred, out of which emerged Anwaruddin Khan. During all these years the English were seriously engaged in strengthening the Fort, particularly its western walls. The Fort as it had grown up by now enclosed the houses of the White Town, but was much smaller than the present Fort. On the north the houses of the Old Black Town encroached almost up to the very wall, the river on the west ran very much more to the east than it does now. In 1743 plans were prepared for enlarging the Fort on the west side and for diverting the course of the river further west. This diversion was not, however, immediately carried out.

    French Occupation of the City and its Results

    The French capture of Madras by Labourdonnais in 1746 is a great event in the history of the City. The French were in occupation of the City for three years till August 1749. They planned to retain it permanently. They demolished the Indian houses of Old Black Town which adjoined the north wall of the Fort and formed a glacis with the debris. The southern portion of the Old Black Town was consequently destroyed. Soon after Madras came back into English possession, the Company began plans for remodeling and strengthening the Fort. The river on the west side was diverted to its present course, and its old bed was built up and included in the Fort. The west wall was strengthened with bastions which were named after the Governor George Pigot, Major Lawrence and Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah. The temple of Chennakesavaperumal which stood in Old Black Town, was also demolished and compensation was given by Government and a new site was offered in China Bazaar where Manali Muthukrishna Mudaliar, the Dubash of Governor Pigot, built the new temple now known as the Town temple. He became the first warden of this temple whose management has continued to remain in his family. Count Lally’s siege of Madras (December 1758 to February 1759) the next crisis in the History of the City was successfully resisted by the English; but they abandoned Old Black Town and the suburbs which were occupied by the French; while the Fort itself was a sand wreck after the siege. Black Town was ruthlessly plundered by the enemy who also burnt the village of Chepauk to the south of the mouth of the Cooum and lying between the Island and Triplicane.

    Building of the Black Town Walls

    After the siege, the Directors resolved that the Fort should be rebuilt upon the most modern plan. Hyder Ali of Mysore was growing powerful at the time. In 1767 he made an expedition to the neighbourhood of Madras, plundered San Thome and burnt several villages in the neighbourhood. Two years later, he again appeared before Madras with a formidable cavalry force. Hyder’s raids threw the inhabitants into a state of panic; and the result was the erection of permanent walls to protect the New Black Town, as Muthialpettah and Peddunaickenpettah together came to be called, after the demolition of the Old Black Town. The rampart walls that were constructed covered the northern and western fronts of modern George Town and ran a course of 3½ miles, being equipped with bastions and flanking works at intervals. The north wall presented a slight convex front towards Tondiarpet. The west wall ran on close to the North River (Cochrane Canal). On the outer side of the walls the ground was cleared for a width of six hundred yards and afforded a field for fire. These spaces were known as Esplanades. The southern part of the Western Esplanade was converted in the middle of the nineteenth century into the People’s Park, and the northern part into Salt Cotaurs. The walls had numerous gates, of which the one known as Elephant Gate still had its name preserved for the site on which it stood. Wall Tax Road also is reminiscent of those times. It was designed to have a good road running on the side of the western rampart and its cost was met be means of a tax which was imposed on the house-holders nearby. But the tax was never collected through an officer, known as the Collector of Town Wall Tax, was appointed for the purpose. It is also said that arches in the western wall were occupied by Indians who paid a rent or tax and hence arose the name of Wall Tax Road which runs for two miles and was close to the western wall. Debtor-prisoners were confined in the bastions in the north-west angle of the wall, which criminals were put in another bastion in the northern wall; and even to-day the street next to the demolished north wall, of which some remnants remain in the compound of the Royapuram Hospital is called the Old Jail Street. The walls were pulled down about the middle of the nineteenth century when swords had to be turned into ploughshares. The remnants of its bastions and curtains that remain on the north indicate how substantially the construction work was made. The walls were finished about 1772.

    Final Formation of the Fort

    About the same time the work of remodeling the Fort was also finished. Many of the private inhabitants who lived within it were compelled to sell their houses, and barracks for British troops were built on their sites. The Fort in its enlarged shape was completed in 1783 when Lord Macartney was Governor. This enlarged Fort stands perfect to-day as a typical example of the ideal fortress of the eighteenth century. It is the last of the four phases of growth which was settlement has passed through. It began as a small castle of Cogan and Day which was enclosed in a square of bastioned walls. In the next stage the White Town inhabited by English, Portuguese and Armenian merchants which grew round the nucleus came to be protected by walls. This survived almost up to the date of French Capture of Madras in 1746. The filling up of the old bed of the North River, the extension of the west front of the Fort and the consequent increase in its area formed from third stage. The last stage was completed in 1783 when the outer walls were totally rebuilt and provided with ample out-works, glacis, reveling and lunettes.

    It was in this epoch also that most of the buildings and barracks in the western portion of the Fort were erected. The Palace Street, so called because Nawab Wallajaj first planned to have a place erected for himself in that street, the Arsenal, the Hanover square and the Western Barracks were all constructed about this time. The streets in the eastern side of the Fort were also altered. Lord Pigot who was twice Governor of Madras, distinguished himself by strengthening the fortifications and defending it successfully against Lally. The weakness of his successors led to his reappointment for a second time as Governor. But he quarreled violently with his colleagues, was imprisoned by them and died in confinement. He was buried in a nameless grave in St. Mary’s Church in the Fort.

    Modern George Town comes into Shape

    In the time of Governor Macartney (1781-85) Black Town assumed the shape that it now has. There was a low-lying region between Muthialpettah and Peddunaickenpettah along which ran a drainage channel. This channel was filled up and the waste land on both its sides were raised; and gradually houses came to be built over the whole area. The main north and south street which traverses this area known as Popham’s Broadway is commemorative of the efforts of Mr.Popham who reclaimed all this region. It was also now that the inhabitants of Peddunaickenpettah living in the south and south-east portions of it were removed elsewhere as their houses were considered to be dangerously near the Fort. The ground which was somewhat elevated was cleared and was converted into an Esplanade of the Fort and is now occupied by the Ordnance Lines. The removal of these houses, accounts for the present curiously broken outline of Peddunaickenpettah on its south-east side and for the abrupt termination of some of its north and south streets.

    Mr. Popham also submitted a plan for the establishment of a regular police force for Madras and for the building of direct and cross drains in every street. He also advocated measures for the naming and lighting of streets, for the regular registration of births and deaths and for the licensing of liquor, arrack and toddy shops. A Board of Police assisted by a Kotwal was subsequently formed. The Kotwal was to be the officer of the markets under the Superintendent of Police. For long, there was difficulty about the collecting of quit rent and scavenger’s duty and it was held that the Company had no power to impose these taxes. A Parliamentary Act of 1792 finally gave the Company the power to levy municipal taxes in the City and it was resolved to order an assessment of five per cent to be collected from the inhabitants on the estimated annual rents of the houses. It was now that the Town cleaning duties were entrusted to the Officers known as Surveyors and Collectors, under whom conservancy work was to be done by contract.


    Fairs and festivals are held in the different parts of the city throughout the year. The festivals associated with Hindu temple are more than 500 in a year.  Apart  from  the traditional  fairs  and  festivals,  modern  fairs  such  as exhibitions and national festivals like Independence day and Republic day  are  celebrated  in the city. following are some of the  important  festivals celebrated in the city which are attended by thousands of devotees from far  and near.

    • The   Brahmotsavam  (including the Arupathumoovar festival)  of  Kapaleeswarar temple located in Mylapore is celebrated in the Tamil month of Panguni (March-April)  and  it lasts for ten days. A big fair is held near  the  temple.  The floating festival held in January – February in Mylapore is also very popular.  

    • Of all the festivals celebrated in the Parthasarathy temple in Triplicane, the most  important  is  the Vaikunta  Ekadari  observed  (December-January).  

    • The Brahmothsavam  in the month of Chithirai is celebrated for ten days.  The  car festivals  falls  on  the  seventh days and is attended  by  more  than  50000 devotees.  

    • The  Kirthigai  (Karthigai asterism) day every month is  a  day  of festival  in  the  Vada  Palani Andavar temple  in  Kodambakkam.  

    • The   annual festivals are Skanda Sashti in Ayppari month and Uthiram in Panguni month. the floating  festivals  during  the Panguni Uthiram is also  well  attended.  

    • The Kandaswami  temple  in  Sowcarpet  celebrate twenty festivals  in  a  year.  

    • The Jathirai  festival  in  Adhi Mottaiamman temple attracts  a  large  number  of crowds.  

    • Among  the several festival celebrated by  the  Siva-Vishnu  temples important  ones  are  Navarathri, Sivarathri, Vaikunta  Ekadasi  and  Sri  Ram Navami.

    • The  Muslim festivals also attract crowds and give rise to fairs in the  city.  The  Ramzan, Bakrid and Muharram  are the important festivals, which is observed  by  thousands ofdevout Muslims in various parts of the city.

    • The Easter, Christmas and the New year  are  marked  by impressive festivities in the  protestant  and  catholic churches  in the city like St. Thomas and the Cathedral  Church in Santhome.

Continue reading “Chennai Directory”



The average household septic system should be inspected at least every three years by a septic service professional. Household septic tanks are typically pumped every three to five years. Alternative systems with electrical float switches, pumps, or mechanical components should be inspected more often, generally once a year. A service contract is important since alternative systems have mechanized parts.

Four major factors influence the frequency of septic pumping:

  • Household size
  • Total wastewater generated
  • Volume of solids in wastewater
  • Septic tank size

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Service provider coming? Here is what you need to know.

When you call a septic service provider, he or she will inspect for leaks and examine the scum and sludge layers in your septic tank.

Keep maintenance records on work performed on your septic system.

Your septic tank includes a T-shaped outlet which prevents sludge and scum from leaving the tank and traveling to the drainfield area. If the bottom of the scum layer is within six inches of the bottom of the outlet, or if the top of the sludge layer is within 12 inches of the outlet, your tank needs to be pumped.

To keep track of when to pump out your tank, write down the sludge and scum levels found by the septic professional.

The service provider should note repairs completed and the tank condition in your system’s service report. If other repairs are recommended, hire a repair person soon.

The National Onsite Wastewater Recycling Association (NOWRA) has a septic locator that makes it easy to find service professionals in your area.

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Use Water Efficiently

The average indoor water use in a typical single-family home is nearly 70 gallons per individual, per day. Just a single leaky or running toilet can waste as much as 200 gallons of water per day.

All of the water a household sends down its pipes winds up in its septic system. The more water a household conserves, the less water enters the septic system. Efficient water use improves the operation of a septic system and reduces the risk of failure.

EPA’s WaterSense program has many simple ways to save water and water-efficient products.

  • High-efficiency toilets.Toilet use accounts for 25 to 30 percent of household water use. Many older homes have toilets with 3.5- to 5-gallon reservoirs, while newer, high-efficiency toilets use 1.6 gallons of water or less per flush. Replacing existing toilets with high-efficiency models is an easy way to reduce the amount of household water entering your septic system.
  • Faucet aerators and high-efficiency showerheads.Faucet aerators, high-efficiency showerheads, and shower flow restrictors help reduce water use and the volume of water entering your septic system.
  • Washing machines.Washing small loads of laundry on your washing machine’s large-load cycle wastes water and energy. By selecting the proper load size, you will reduce water waste. If you are unable to select a load size, run only full loads of laundry.

    Try to spread washing machine use throughout the week. Doing all household laundry in one day might seem like a time-saver; but it can harm your septic system, not allow your septic tank enough time to treat waste, and could flood your drainfield

    Clothes washers that bear the ENERGY STAR label use 35 percent less energy and 50 percent less water than standard models. Other Energy Star appliances provide significant energy and water savings.

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Properly Dispose of Waste

Whether you flush it down the toilet, grind it in the garbage disposal, or pour it down the sink, shower, or bath, everything that goes down your drains ends up in your septic system. What goes down the drain affects how well your septic system works.

Toilets aren’t trash cans!

Your septic system is not a trash can. An easy rule of thumb: Do not flush anything besides human waste and toilet paper. Never flush:

  • Cooking grease or oil
  • Flushable wipes
  • Photographic solutions
  • Feminine hygiene products
  • Condoms
  • Dental floss
  • Diapers
  • Cigarette butts
  • Coffee grounds
  • Cat litter
  • Paper towels
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Household chemicals like gasoline, oil, pesticides, antifreeze, and paint or paint thinners

Think at the sink!

Your septic system contains a collection of living organisms that digest and treat household waste. Pouring toxins down your drain can kill these organisms and harm your septic system. Whether you are at the kitchen sink, bathtub, or utility sink:

  • Avoid chemical drain openers for a clogged drain. Instead, use boiling water or a drain snake.
  • Never pour cooking oil or grease down the drain.
  • Never pour oil-based paints, solvents, or large volumes of toxic cleaners down the drain. Even latex paint waste should be minimized.
  • Eliminate or limit the use of a garbage disposal. This will significantly reduce the amount of fats, grease, and solids that enter your septic tank and ultimately clog its drainfield.

Cleaning Services in Madurai provides a wide range of septic cleaning services to residential and commercial customers clients throughout Madurai and surrounding areas. Cleaning Services in Madurai offer septic tank cleaning service in and around Madurai using modernized, service is available for Houses, Apartments, Commercial Complexes, Schools, College, Hospitals, Hotels, Marriage Halls, Dyeing Units, Construction Site Labor Colonies and Industries. Cleaning Services in Maduraprovide cleaning services at an affordable price.

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The waste water that your family generates is bubbling with millions of harmful contaminants as well as dangerous micro-organisms. This sludge can not only make someone that is inexperienced with septic tank pumping extremely sick, but it can also contaminate the immediate vicinity and beyond.

The Septic Tank Pumping Process

The entire septic tank pumping process, which consists of extensive pumping, draining and cleaning, is definitely not child’s play. Cleaning a  septic tank is quite different from mowing your lawn. You need a lot more expertise and machinery to get the job done right the first time. You also need to do it efficiently and more quickly. This is obviously one job you want done correctly.

Cleaning Services in Madurai are the pioneers in Sewage Cleaning Lorry Service. We undertake cleaning and desalting the domestic and industrial sewage wastes. Cleaning Services in Madurai are introducing our Septic Tank Cleaning Service with latest technology Air Compressor Lorry for cleaning sewage and sludge completely and hygienically. Cleaning services in Madurai ensure a team to work around your needs, re-scheduling at short notice, meeting your expectations. With our Experience, Flexibility and Hardworking crew you can rely on Cleaning Services in Madurai to provide the deepest clean.


Septic Tank Cleaning Services in Madurai is the most reputed and renowned septic tank cleaning providers in and around Madurai. Septic Tank Cleaning Services in Madurai India’s Largest Septic Tank Cleaning Service Provider. Cleaning Services in Madurai are a one stop solution for all your cleaning needs and offer a variety of services including commercial, residential, corporate Building, etc. Septic Tank Cleaning Services in Madurai are ensuring Quality and standard service through our fully trained operators & updated machineries and equipment.

Septic Tank Cleaning Services in Madurai to provide the deepest cleaning services in South India. Septic Tank Cleaning Services in Madurai is fully equipped to offer you a complete range of septic services.


Cleaning Services Madurai is one of the leading septic tank cleaning services in Madurai are surrounding areas. Cleaning Services Madurai providing septic tank cleaning solutions to various industries. Cleaning Services Madurai offers the best residential and commercial septic tank cleaning.Panindiamart Tank cleaning services in Madurai are a preferred septic tank cleaning service provider. Cleaning Services Madurai service technicians are knowledgeable, efficient, courteous, and will help you meet all current regulations and requirements.

Cleaning Services Madurai is best septic tank cleaning service provider in Madurai are surrounding areas. Cleaning Services Madurai is an organization, working to faster cleaning services in South India.

அழுக்கா! நாட்பட்ட கறையா!
கவலை வேண்டாம் உடைக்காமல், மாற்றாமல் புத்தம் புதிதாய்


    1. தங்களின் வீடு, நிறுவனங்களில் டிலெஸ், மார்பிள்ஸ், கிரானைட் (பாத்ரூம், டாய்லெட், கிச்சன்) இவைகளில் படிந்துள்ள அழுக்கு மற்றும் நாட்பட்ட கறைகளையும் 100% நீக்கி புதுமையாக்கித் தரப்படும்.
    1. முழு வீட்டையும் தூசி, ஒட்டடை மற்றும் நாட்பட்ட படிந்துள்ள கறைகளையும் நீக்கி 100% புத்தம் புதிதாக மாற்றி தரப்படும்
    1. வாட்டர் டாங்க், பிஷ் டெங்க் போன்றவைகளும்100% சுத்தம் செய்து தரப்படும்
    1. வீடு மற்றும் நிறுவனங்களின் முகப்பு மற்றும் வெளிப்புற கண்ணாடி வகைகளும் 100% சுத்தம் செய்து தரப்படும்.
    1. தாங்கள் மேற்கொள்ளும் பணிகளுக்கு எனப்படும் சர்வீஸ் செய்து தரப்படும்.
    1. மேற்கண்ட அனைத்து பணிகளும் இதே துறையில் நன்கு அனுபவம் வாய்ந்த பணியாளர்களைக் கொண்டு மிகப் பாதுகாப்புடனும் 100% உத்தரவாதத்துடனும் செய்து தரப்படும்.

சுத்தம் காப்போம் சுகமாக வாழ்வோம்


Leading Business Directory in india

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  1. The purpose: we want to highlight signals of trust we find in the sites we review, in turn helping these sites show they are reputable businesses that visitors can trust.Trust is perhaps the most important currency online. Search engines look for signs of trust to identify if a company is worth ranking high in their results, and actual website visitors look for signs of trust to see if the company is worth spending their time and money with.Search engines tend to over-rely on inbound links as the major signal of trust, often to the frustration of the reputable company whose website doesn’t naturally gain links, even if they’re a company that’s been operating for 50 years or more, and have a service or product that has gained them an excellent reptuation offline, and have served and continue to serve many happy clients. Even if you’re a brand new company, you may have jumped through a lot of hoops to establish yourself – been accredited/certificated by various organizations, invested in a bricks and mortar presence, employed people and have gained a great offline reputation in a short space of time. And yet, a search engine algorithm is oblivious to all of these signals of trust simply because they can’t be measured automatically / algorithmically. It takes a manual review of a website to really get a closer look at the ACTUAL company itself – its history, past work, testimonials, accreditations and certifications earned, whether it’s regulated by a government body, to understand its offline operations and also its future plans. These are all great signals of trust and they should be reported on when they’re found. That’s exactly what we do.The kinds of signs we look for (and the kinds of things you should be adding to your site) include:-
    • Case studies / portfolio – a chance to show off your excellent work
    • Our business directory  professionals will checkClient list – show which companies already trust you
    • Our business directory  Testimonials – get honest feedback from your customers to add to create an authentic insight into your products / services
    • Full company contact address – an obvious one, but you’ll be surprised how many websites don’t list a physical address
    • Accreditations – if your company has been accredited, let your visitors know
    • Associations – list any associations you’ve joined, or partnering businesses
    • Certifications / qualifications – this should also be obvious, but list any relevant certifications / qualifications
    • Delivery information – something every shopper looks for when buying tangible items – make this information super-easy to find
    • Returns policy – same again for shoppers – make it easy to find
    • Details of your high street premises – if you also run a high street shop, let everyone know – take a video walk-through of it, pictures, description etc
    • Terms and conditions – every business should have these in an easy-to-find place, and for the trust factor, they should be written in plain English – very few people speak legalese
    • Office in various countries – perhaps not a boast that many companies can make, but if you do have offices in other countries, show then in detail – show how established you are
    • Details of complaints procedure – many companies don’t like to even mention the potential that a problem might even occur(!), but having a complaints procedure means you take complaints seriously
    • Our business directory   has Detailed ‘Meet the Team’ info found – show us who you are – photos, descriptions etc
    • Our business directory  professionals will check Strong online social presence – if you’re popular on one or more social networks, show it!
    • Our business directory  will Regularly updated blog/news – don’t make your site look stale. A regularly updated blog/news section shows you’re active and over time, is a sign of your longevity
    • Our business directory  professionals will check Details of your company mentioned in popular press publications / media outlets – any press mentions, let everybody know
    • Company established in…let people know when your company was established. Even if it was “only” a couple of years ago, let them know.
    • Add videos – introduce yourself
    • Our business directory  professionals will check  X years’ experience – just because your company might only be six months old, it doesn’t mean you can’t let people know about your overall experience if it’s relevant to the site.
    • Our business directory  professionals will check Company is regulated by X regulatory body – if you’re regulated, say so.
    • Our business directory  professionals will checkShow off your other, more established sites – if you’ve launched a new site but have had successes with other more established sites, say so – people like to know you have a reliable track record.
    • Our business directory  professionals will check personal, but it’s quite straight forward: be honest. That might include admitting to some mistakes you’ve made and how you’ve learnt from them. It’s daring to speak in a candid voice. Remember you’re not speaking in front of an audience, you’re speaking to one individual at a time. You don’t have to tell your life story, but admitting to mistakes (and what you learnt from them) isn’t a sign of weakness or failure. It’s refreshingly honest and helps win people over.

Madurai Biryani


எங்கள் சுவை, தரம் தனித்துவமானது! தரத்தில் சிறப்பு! சுவையில் அலாதி!

மதுரை – No.1 சுவையில் செய்யது பிரியாணி கேட்டரிங்,திருமணம் மற்றும் எல்லா விஷயங்களுக்கும் ஆர்டர் கொடுத்தால் உடனடியாக டெலிவரி செய்யப்படும், ஒரு படிக்கு (11/2 கிலோ மட்டன் or சிக்கன்)
contact – 9600492823

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Biryani  caters in madurai 
இலவசங்கள் :

    1. தாழ்சா , எலும்பு குர்மா  
    1. தயிர் பச்சடி 
    1. வாழை இலை – 10 
    1. முட்டை -10 

A Biryani Recipe finally fragrant after 2000 years

On a hot day, after miles of digging in the erstwhile region of Persia, Archeologists chanced upon a trail that led to an important unearthing: An entire city lay in ruins; remnants of what used to be the city of “Behrouz”.

The kingdom gained popularity owing to its recipe for layered rice which was served to the kings and mass alike on festivities- A dish that is now known as Biryani.

The recipe was lost forever when King Cyrus laid siege to Behrouz.

Read Story

Many moons later Dr.Ibrahim along with his team of archeologists dug out a parchment. A parchment containing the ancient recipe of Behrouz biryani was rediscovered.

You can now experience the royal flavours of Behrouz again!

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Madurai Biryani/Madurai BiryaniMadurai BiryanivMadurai BiryanivMadurai Biryani/v/v/Madurai BiryanivMadurai Biryani/vMadurai BiryaniMadurai BiryanivvMadurai BiryanivMadurai BiryaniMadurai Biryanivvv/vMadurai BiryanivMadurai BiryaniMadurai Biryani/Madurai Biryani/Madurai BiryaniMadurai BiryaniMadurai BiryaniMadurai

Tanjore Medical college -தஞ்சை மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி உருவான உண்மை !!!

தஞ்சை மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி உருவான  உண்மை  !!!
“ஒரு நாள் காமராஜரைச் சந்திக்க வந்த செல்வந்தர் ஒருவர், கோவையில் மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி ஒன்று அமைக்க ரூ.20 லட்சம் தருவதாக கூறினார்.
அந்த திட்டத்திற்க்கு 1 கோடி செலவாகும் என்றும், மீதி 80 லட்சத்தை

அரசு முதலீடு செய்ய வேண்டும் என்றும் அந்தச் செல்வந்தர் கேட்டுக்கொண்டார். அந்த மருத்துவக்க் கல்லூரி, தனியார் நிர்வாகத்தில் இருகுமென்றும் கூறினார். இதற்குச் சம்பந்தப்பட்ட சுகாதரத்துறை அமைச்சரின் ஆதரவும் ஆமோதிப்பும் இருத்தது.
சிறிது காலத்திற்க்குப் பிறகு, இத்திட்டம் சம்பந்தமான கோப்பு அனுமத்க்காகக் காமராஜரின் பார்வைக்கு வந்தது. சம்பந்தபட்ட அமைச்சரைக் காமராஜர் அழைத்து, “80 லட்சம் ரூபாயை ஒரு தனியாரிடம் கொடுத்து மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி தொடங்குவதைவிட, இன்னும் 20 லட்சத்தைப் போட்டு அரசாங்கமே மருத்துவக் கல்லூரியை தொடங்களாமே? தனியாரை மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி தொடங்க அனுமதித்தால், அவர்கள் அதைத் தொழிலாக்கிவிடுவார்கள். லாபம் சம்பாதிப்பதுதான் அவர்கள் நோக்கமாக இருக்கும். சேவை மனப்பான்மை இருக்காது” என்றார். சம்பந்தப்பட்ட அமைச்சர் பதில் ஏதும் சொல்ல முடியாமல் திக்கு முக்காடிப் போனார்.
கோவையில் தனியார் மருத்துவக் கல்லூரியைத் தொடங்க அனுமதி மறுத்த காமராஜ், தஞ்சாவூர் போர்டு, ரயில்வே செஸ் வரியாக வசூலித்த தொகையில் ரூ 1.30 கோடி இருப்பதை கேள்விப்பட்டு, அதை மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி தொடங்க செலவழிப்பதற்கு அனுமதி அளித்தார். மேற்கொண்டு பணம் தேவைப்பட்டாலும் அரசு கொடுக்கத் தயாராக இருப்பதாகவும் கூறினார். இவ்வாறு தஞ்சையில் 1 கோடிக்குமேல் செலவு செய்து அரசு மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி அமைந்திட ஆதரவும், ஊக்கமும் அளித்தார்.
இன்று தஞ்சையில் சிறப்பாக செயல்பட்டு வரும் மருத்துவக்கல்லூரி, காமராஜரின் முயற்சியினால் உருவானது என்கிற உண்மை பலருக்குத் தெரியாமல் போனதில் வியப்பில்லை.”தஞ்சை மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி உருவான கதை !!!
“ஒரு நாள் காமராஜரைச் சந்திக்க வந்த செல்வந்தர் ஒருவர், கோவையில் மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி ஒன்று அமைக்க ரூ.20 லட்சம் தருவதாக கூறினார்.
அந்த திட்டத்திற்க்கு 1 கோடி செலவாகும் என்றும், மீதி 80 லட்சத்தை அரசு முதலீடு செய்ய வேண்டும் என்றும் அந்தச் செல்வந்தர் கேட்டுக்கொண்டார். அந்த மருத்துவக்க் கல்லூரி, தனியார் நிர்வாகத்தில் இருகுமென்றும் கூறினார். இதற்குச் சம்பந்தப்பட்ட சுகாதரத்துறை அமைச்சரின் ஆதரவும் ஆமோதிப்பும் இருத்தது.
சிறிது காலத்திற்க்குப் பிறகு, இத்திட்டம் சம்பந்தமான கோப்பு அனுமத்க்காகக் காமராஜரின் பார்வைக்கு வந்தது. சம்பந்தபட்ட அமைச்சரைக் காமராஜர் அழைத்து, “80 லட்சம் ரூபாயை ஒரு தனியாரிடம் கொடுத்து மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி தொடங்குவதைவிட, இன்னும் 20 லட்சத்தைப் போட்டு அரசாங்கமே மருத்துவக் கல்லூரியை தொடங்களாமே? தனியாரை மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி தொடங்க அனுமதித்தால், அவர்கள் அதைத் தொழிலாக்கிவிடுவார்கள். லாபம் சம்பாதிப்பதுதான் அவர்கள் நோக்கமாக இருக்கும். சேவை மனப்பான்மை இருக்காது” என்றார். சம்பந்தப்பட்ட அமைச்சர் பதில் ஏதும் சொல்ல முடியாமல் திக்கு முக்காடிப் போனார்.
கோவையில் தனியார் மருத்துவக் கல்லூரியைத் தொடங்க அனுமதி மறுத்த காமராஜ், தஞ்சாவூர் போர்டு, ரயில்வே செஸ் வரியாக வசூலித்த தொகையில் ரூ 1.30 கோடி இருப்பதை கேள்விப்பட்டு, அதை மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி தொடங்க செலவழிப்பதற்கு அனுமதி அளித்தார். மேற்கொண்டு பணம் தேவைப்பட்டாலும் அரசு கொடுக்கத் தயாராக இருப்பதாகவும் கூறினார். இவ்வாறு தஞ்சையில் 1 கோடிக்குமேல் செலவு செய்து அரசு மருத்துவக் கல்லூரி அமைந்திட ஆதரவும், ஊக்கமும் அளித்தார்.
இன்று தஞ்சையில் சிறப்பாக செயல்பட்டு வரும் மருத்துவக்கல்லூரி, காமராஜரின் முயற்சியினால் உருவானது என்கிற உண்மை பலருக்குத் தெரியாமல் போனதில் வியப்பில்லை.”