Way To reduce Your Fat Belly!

Here is a great tip to lose weight in 2018. All you need to do is tweak your diet only a bit and this one change is easy to follow and is super effective as well.

Eat five servings of veggies every day and every day here means every single day no matter what. Vegetables are low in calories and high in fibre. This keeps you fuller for longer and stops you from bingeing. Also, vegetables are packed with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. When you replace your other meals with vegetables you intake fewer calories without missing the feeling of fullness.
So how does this benefit you? Not only the fiber in the veggies makes you feel fuller for longer but according to studies, every gram of fiber we eat essentially cancels out 7 calories. Fiber-rich diet is also linked with less belly fat and regulating blood sugar.
A study was conducted where people were divided into two groups. People of both the groups ate the same number of calories but the people who had more plant food had lower BMI, slimmer waist and less inflammation. Eating more veggies every day gives you protection against many common chronic diseases and a healthier gut microbe which in turn is related to a stronger immunity. According to a study conducted at St. Andrews University, people who increased their intake of veggies were rated as more attractive than those who did not.

Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul

 Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul
Technology has changed the way we work and live. The combined powers of digital, social, mobile, analytics and cloud technologies have empowered both consumers and companies to communicate like never before.
Today, modern multichannel customers have set the bar so high in terms of their expectations from brands, that competing- and winning- in today’s market requires exceeding expectations and delivering great customer experiences.
This is why we have designed on-demand Customized Corporate Training Solutions in Digital Marketing to provide intensive support for marketing teams, instantly upgrading their skill sets on digital.
COURSE OVERVIEW
Our custom trainings are suitable for teams of every scale of business. Whether you are a Startup, Medium or Large enterprise, we can custom-design a Program based on your unique requirements.
We have already trained some of the world’s most well known digital and traditional brands across Marketing, Sales, Social media, Web Analytics and Online CRM.
We have trained at all functional levels, from the beginner level executives to the CXO level strategy makers.
Here are ways in which we can grow your online marketing ROI:
Expert-led Corporate Digital Marketing Training
– You Contact us 730577703 letting us know what you need. Our Trainers are Certified inGoogle and they are also Certified in UGC Conducted SET Exams,click here to know about the Certificates
– We’ll set up a call for you with our expert instructors, to identify the most suitable modules and digital marketing strategies to cater to your unique requirement.
– Once you are confident about the most suitable training solution, we will schedule an expert-led digital marketing training at your place or our place, based on preference and availability.
– This way we develop your in-house capabilities by training your team on digital marketing.
Get Started Now!
call 730577703
 Online Reputation Management (ORM)
Personal Online Branding for Management
How to deal with negative comments online
Daily Alerts & Actions for Management
: Web Analytics (Google Analytics Framework ) – Basic & Advanced Workshop
Google Analytics Setup.
Set-up Conversion Funnels
In-Depth understanding of web traffic
KPI for Web marketing teams
Analysis Framework for Management
Module 8: Social Media Marketing – Basic and Advanced Workshop
Facebook Page Management
Facebook Engagement Campaigns
Integrating SEO & Social Media Strategies
Remarketing on Social Media
You Tube SMO Strategy
Blog Management
Integrating Social Media Platforms
Get Started Now
corporate-training-assessment
Hire us as your Virtual CDO (Chief Digital Officer)
– For an ongoing, specialised digital consultancy support by our experts, you can choose to have us as your Virtual Chief Digital Officer (CDO).
– The collective knowledge of our Experts offered through this unique methodology gives you industry’s best brains as digital strategy makers in a cost-effective and flexible format.
– We take care of your digital strategy so that you can focus on your core business.
– This way we work alongside your team to achieve positive digital transformation working on tangible goals.
Get More Details Here-7305777703
MODULES & TOPICS COVERED
Digital Tout corporate training program is customized to fit the requirements of your organization, and be relevant cross departments. Our training programs have assisted individuals from various functions:
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
1. Where will the traning take place?
As a part of Bespoke Pratictioner Led Training, Leading Industry practitioners, who bring their up to date experience would either deliver customised digital marketing trainings at Your Place (Bespoke training delivered at your premises) or at Our Place (State of the art Education Centre)
2. What will be the duration of training programs?
We can design workshops as per the organizations needs. Currently our modules can be delivered in:
1 Day Training Program to 5 Days Training Program
3. What all Modules are covered in the training programs?
Though the modules would be customized based on your requirement but most of our corporate clients opt for following modules:
Module 1: Pay Per Click Advertising
Module 2: Search Engine Optimization
Module 3: Social Media Marketing
Module 4: Online Reputation Management
Module 5: Google Analytics Framework
4. What should a company expect from the training program?
Expect:
5. What is the training methodolgy adopted by DigitalTout Academy?
Our trainers shall customize the delivery methodology based on your teams understanding & your organizations requirement.
         Analysis: Audit present campaigns / account using tools.
         Workshop: Conduct activities to develop the required frameworks & strategy roadmaps for your team
         Training: Live, trainer-led classroom based training
         Consultancy: In-depth involvement in the business to form strategy.
Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In DindigulBest Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In DindigulBest Digital Marketing Training In DindigulBest Digital Marketing Training In DindigulBest Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul/Best Digital Marketing Training In DindigulBest Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul

corporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad

corporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad

Technology has changed the way we work and live. The combined powers of digital, social, mobile, analytics and cloud technologies have empowered both consumers and companies to communicate like never before.
Today, modern multichannel customers have set the bar so high in terms of their expectations from brands, that competing- and winning- in today’s market requires exceeding expectations and delivering great customer experiences.
This is why we have designed on-demand Customized Corporate Training Solutions in Digital Marketing to provide intensive support for marketing teams, instantly upgrading their skill sets on digital.
COURSE OVERVIEW
Our custom trainings are suitable for teams of every scale of business. Whether you are a Startup, Medium or Large enterprise, we can custom-design a Program based on your unique requirements.
We have already trained some of the world’s most well known digital and traditional brands across Marketing, Sales, Social media, Web Analytics and Online CRM.
We have trained at all functional levels, from the beginner level executives to the CXO level strategy makers.
Here are ways in which we can grow your online marketing ROI:
Expert-led Corporate Digital Marketing Training
– You Contact us 730577703 letting us know what you need. Our Trainers are Certified inGoogle and they are also Certified in UGC Conducted SET Exams,click here to know about the Certificates
– We’ll set up a call for you with our expert instructors, to identify the most suitable modules and digital marketing strategies to cater to your unique requirement.
– Once you are confident about the most suitable training solution, we will schedule an expert-led digital marketing training at your place or our place, based on preference and availability.
– This way we develop your in-house capabilities by training your team on digital marketing.
Get Started Now!
Module 6: Online Reputation Management (ORM)
Personal Online Branding for Management
How to deal with negative comments online
Daily Alerts & Actions for Management
Module 7: Web Analytics (Google Analytics Framework ) – Basic & Advanced Workshop
Google Analytics Setup.
Set-up Conversion Funnels
In-Depth understanding of web traffic
KPI for Web marketing teams
Analysis Framework for Management
Module 8: Social Media Marketing – Basic and Advanced Workshop
Facebook Page Management
Facebook Engagement Campaigns
Integrating SEO & Social Media Strategies
Remarketing on Social Media
You Tube SMO Strategy
Blog Management
Integrating Social Media Platforms
Get Started Now
corporate-training-assessment
Hire us as your Virtual CDO (Chief Digital Officer)
– For an ongoing, specialised digital consultancy support by our experts, you can choose to have us as your Virtual Chief Digital Officer (CDO).
– The collective knowledge of our Experts offered through this unique methodology gives you industry’s best brains as digital strategy makers in a cost-effective and flexible format.
– We take care of your digital strategy so that you can focus on your core business.
– This way we work alongside your team to achieve positive digital transformation working on tangible goals.
Get More Details Here-7305777703
MODULES & TOPICS COVERED
Digital Academy corporate training program is customized to fit the requirements of your organization, and be relevant cross departments. Our training programs have assisted individuals from various functions:
Digital Marketing Experts: Update their skill set & know about the latest updates
Conventional Marketers: Gain practical insight into online marketing.
Account Executives from Digital Agencies: Stay updated with the upcoming trends & enhance their digital marketing knowledge
Human Resources Teams: Effectiveness in recruiting Digital Marketing teams
C-Level Executives: To understand the implications of digital for their business.Our in-company training is frequently tailored to the specific requirements of a particular industry sector. We have worked across the board, including financial services, government and public sector, retail, media and publishing and travel industries, as well as PR, marketing and advertising agencies.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
1. Where will the traning take place?
As a part of Bespoke Pratictioner Led Training, Leading Industry practitioners, who bring their up to date experience would either deliver customised digital marketing trainings at Your Place (Bespoke training delivered at your premises) or at Our Place (State of the art Education Centre)
2. What will be the duration of training programs?
We can design workshops as per the organizations needs. Currently our modules can be delivered in:
1 Day Training Program to 5 Days Training Program
3. What all Modules are covered in the training programs?
Though the modules would be customized based on your requirement but most of our corporate clients opt for following modules:
Module 1: Pay Per Click Advertising
Module 2: Search Engine Optimization
Module 3: Social Media Marketing
Module 4: Online Reputation Management
Module 5: Google Analytics Framework
4. What should a company expect from the training program?
Expect:
– Frameworks for Analysis
– Critical Feedback
– Real time measurements – Boring Presentations
– Praises & Awards
– Hypothetical Situations
– Yawning
– Gut Feeling
– Excuses
5. What is the training methodolgy adopted by DigitalTout Academy?
Our trainers shall customize the delivery methodology based on your teams understanding & your organizations requirement.
         Analysis: Audit present campaigns / account using tools.
         Workshop: Conduct activities to develop the required frameworks & strategy roadmaps for your team
         Training: Live, trainer-led classroom based training
         Consultancy: In-depth involvement in the business to form strategy.
 Corcorporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad / Corcorporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad / Corcorporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad / Corcorporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad / Corcorporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad / Corcorporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad / Corcorporate Digital Marketing Training in Hyderabad

Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala

 Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala

Technology has changed the way we work and live. The combined powers of digital, social, mobile, analytics and cloud technologies have empowered both consumers and companies to communicate like never before.
Today, modern multichannel customers have set the bar so high in terms of their expectations from brands, that competing- and winning- in today’s market requires exceeding expectations and delivering great customer experiences.
This is why we have designed on-demand Customized Corporate Training Solutions in Digital Marketing to provide intensive support for marketing teams, instantly upgrading their skill sets on digital.
COURSE OVERVIEW
Our custom trainings are suitable for teams of every scale of business. Whether you are a Startup, Medium or Large enterprise, we can custom-design a Program based on your unique requirements.
We have already trained some of the world’s most well known digital and traditional brands across Marketing, Sales, Social media, Web Analytics and Online CRM.
We have trained at all functional levels, from the beginner level executives to the CXO level strategy makers.
Here are ways in which we can grow your online marketing ROI:
Expert-led Corporate Digital Marketing Training
– You Contact us 730577703 letting us know what you need. Our Trainers are Certified inGoogle and they are also Certified in UGC Conducted SET Exams,click here to know about the Certificates
– We’ll set up a call for you with our expert instructors, to identify the most suitable modules and digital marketing strategies to cater to your unique requirement.
– Once you are confident about the most suitable training solution, we will schedule an expert-led digital marketing training at your place or our place, based on preference and availability.
– This way we develop your in-house capabilities by training your team on digital marketing.
Get Started Now!
Module 6: Online Reputation Management (ORM)
Personal Online Branding for Management
How to deal with negative comments online
Daily Alerts & Actions for Management
Module 7: Web Analytics (Google Analytics Framework ) – Basic & Advanced Workshop
Google Analytics Setup.
Set-up Conversion Funnels
In-Depth understanding of web traffic
KPI for Web marketing teams
Analysis Framework for Management
Module 8: Social Media Marketing – Basic and Advanced Workshop
Facebook Page Management
Facebook Engagement Campaigns
Integrating SEO & Social Media Strategies
Remarketing on Social Media
You Tube SMO Strategy
Blog Management
Integrating Social Media Platforms
Get Started Now
corporate-training-assessment
Hire us as your Virtual CDO (Chief Digital Officer)
– For an ongoing, specialised digital consultancy support by our experts, you can choose to have us as your Virtual Chief Digital Officer (CDO).
– The collective knowledge of our Experts offered through this unique methodology gives you industry’s best brains as digital strategy makers in a cost-effective and flexible format.
– We take care of your digital strategy so that you can focus on your core business.
– This way we work alongside your team to achieve positive digital transformation working on tangible goals.
Get More Details Here-7305777703
MODULES & TOPICS COVERED
Digital Academy corporate training program is customized to fit the requirements of your organization, and be relevant cross departments. Our training programs have assisted individuals from various functions:
Digital Marketing Experts: Update their skill set & know about the latest updates
Conventional Marketers: Gain practical insight into online marketing.
Account Executives from Digital Agencies: Stay updated with the upcoming trends & enhance their digital marketing knowledge
Human Resources Teams: Effectiveness in recruiting Digital Marketing teams
C-Level Executives: To understand the implications of digital for their business.Our in-company training is frequently tailored to the specific requirements of a particular industry sector. We have worked across the board, including financial services, government and public sector, retail, media and publishing and travel industries, as well as PR, marketing and advertising agencies.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
1. Where will the traning take place?
As a part of Bespoke Pratictioner Led Training, Leading Industry practitioners, who bring their up to date experience would either deliver customised digital marketing trainings at Your Place (Bespoke training delivered at your premises) or at Our Place (State of the art Education Centre)
2. What will be the duration of training programs?
We can design workshops as per the organizations needs. Currently our modules can be delivered in:
1 Day Training Program to 5 Days Training Program
3. What all Modules are covered in the training programs?
Though the modules would be customized based on your requirement but most of our corporate clients opt for following modules:
Module 1: Pay Per Click Advertising
Module 2: Search Engine Optimization
Module 3: Social Media Marketing
Module 4: Online Reputation Management
Module 5: Google Analytics Framework
4. What should a company expect from the training program?
Expect:
– Frameworks for Analysis
– Critical Feedback
– Real time measurements – Boring Presentations
– Praises & Awards
– Hypothetical Situations
– Yawning
– Gut Feeling
– Excuses
5. What is the training methodolgy adopted by DigitalTout Academy?
Our trainers shall customize the delivery methodology based on your teams understanding & your organizations requirement.
         Analysis: Audit present campaigns / account using tools.
         Workshop: Conduct activities to develop the required frameworks & strategy roadmaps for your team
         Training: Live, trainer-led classroom based training
         Consultancy: In-depth involvement in the business to form strategy.
Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala/Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala/Corporate Digital Marketing Training-keralaCorporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala/Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala/v/Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala/Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala/Corporate Digital Marketing Training-kerala/v/v/Corporate Digital Marketing Training-keralav

Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu

 Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu

Technology has changed the way we work and live. The combined powers of digital, social, mobile, analytics and cloud technologies have empowered both consumers and companies to communicate like never before.
Today, modern multichannel customers have set the bar so high in terms of their expectations from brands, that competing- and winning- in today’s market requires exceeding expectations and delivering great customer experiences.
This is why we have designed on-demand Customized Corporate Training Solutions in Digital Marketing to provide intensive support for marketing teams, instantly upgrading their skill sets on digital.
COURSE OVERVIEW
Our custom trainings are suitable for teams of every scale of business. Whether you are a Startup, Medium or Large enterprise, we can custom-design a Program based on your unique requirements.
We have already trained some of the world’s most well known digital and traditional brands across Marketing, Sales, Social media, Web Analytics and Online CRM.
We have trained at all functional levels, from the beginner level executives to the CXO level strategy makers.
Here are ways in which we can grow your online marketing ROI:
Expert-led Corporate Digital Marketing Training
– You Contact us 730577703 letting us know what you need. Our Trainers are Certified inGoogle and they are also Certified in UGC Conducted SET Exams,click here to know about the Certificates
– We’ll set up a call for you with our expert instructors, to identify the most suitable modules and digital marketing strategies to cater to your unique requirement.
– Once you are confident about the most suitable training solution, we will schedule an expert-led digital marketing training at your place or our place, based on preference and availability.
– This way we develop your in-house capabilities by training your team on digital marketing.
Get Started Now!
Module 6: Online Reputation Management (ORM)
Personal Online Branding for Management
How to deal with negative comments online
Daily Alerts & Actions for Management
Module 7: Web Analytics (Google Analytics Framework ) – Basic & Advanced Workshop
Google Analytics Setup.
Set-up Conversion Funnels
In-Depth understanding of web traffic
KPI for Web marketing teams
Analysis Framework for Management
Module 8: Social Media Marketing – Basic and Advanced Workshop
Facebook Page Management
Facebook Engagement Campaigns
Integrating SEO & Social Media Strategies
Remarketing on Social Media
You Tube SMO Strategy
Blog Management
Integrating Social Media Platforms
Get Started Now
corporate-training-assessment
Hire us as your Virtual CDO (Chief Digital Officer)
– For an ongoing, specialised digital consultancy support by our experts, you can choose to have us as your Virtual Chief Digital Officer (CDO).
– The collective knowledge of our Experts offered through this unique methodology gives you industry’s best brains as digital strategy makers in a cost-effective and flexible format.
– We take care of your digital strategy so that you can focus on your core business.
– This way we work alongside your team to achieve positive digital transformation working on tangible goals.
Get More Details Here-7305777703
MODULES & TOPICS COVERED
Digital Academy corporate training program is customized to fit the requirements of your organization, and be relevant cross departments. Our training programs have assisted individuals from various functions:
Digital Marketing Experts: Update their skill set & know about the latest updates
Conventional Marketers: Gain practical insight into online marketing.
Account Executives from Digital Agencies: Stay updated with the upcoming trends & enhance their digital marketing knowledge
Human Resources Teams: Effectiveness in recruiting Digital Marketing teams
C-Level Executives: To understand the implications of digital for their business.Our in-company training is frequently tailored to the specific requirements of a particular industry sector. We have worked across the board, including financial services, government and public sector, retail, media and publishing and travel industries, as well as PR, marketing and advertising agencies.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
1. Where will the traning take place?
As a part of Bespoke Pratictioner Led Training, Leading Industry practitioners, who bring their up to date experience would either deliver customised digital marketing trainings at Your Place (Bespoke training delivered at your premises) or at Our Place (State of the art Education Centre)
2. What will be the duration of training programs?
We can design workshops as per the organizations needs. Currently our modules can be delivered in:
1 Day Training Program to 5 Days Training Program
3. What all Modules are covered in the training programs?
Though the modules would be customized based on your requirement but most of our corporate clients opt for following modules:
Module 1: Pay Per Click Advertising
Module 2: Search Engine Optimization
Module 3: Social Media Marketing
Module 4: Online Reputation Management
Module 5: Google Analytics Framework
4. What should a company expect from the training program?
Expect:
– Frameworks for Analysis
– Critical Feedback
– Real time measurements – Boring Presentations
– Praises & Awards
– Hypothetical Situations
– Yawning
– Gut Feeling
– Excuses
5. What is the training methodolgy adopted by DigitalTout Academy?
Our trainers shall customize the delivery methodology based on your teams understanding & your organizations requirement.
         Analysis: Audit present campaigns / account using tools.
         Workshop: Conduct activities to develop the required frameworks & strategy roadmaps for your team
         Training: Live, trainer-led classroom based training
         Consultancy: In-depth involvement in the business to form strategy.
Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu /Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu Corporate Digital Marketing Training-Tamilnadu

Digital Marketing Company in kkNagar Madurai 

Digital Marketing Company in kkNagar Madurai

DigitalTout.com Is a Entity of   leading  Private Limited Company Engaged in  digital marketing, company with result driven approach. we believe in Result First – Pay Later digital marketing. The company offers e-automate, it is a leading digital marketing company with result driven approach, which enables to manage common business processes, such as accounting, Social Media Optimization, contract processing, Digital market services, an add-on product for e-automate, which digitalTout.com connects dealers to digital marketing in real-time and automatically generates purchase market as selections are companies.

Digital Marketing Company in kkNagar Madurai  has marketing has a very good potential to increase sales but has been utilized fully software in india.the right way to digital market tool marketing strategy. seamless automation needed  for the business Incredible future of the digital market.

Digital Marketing Solution:

All your Services are executed by proffessionals who have rich experiance in the field of Digital Marketing Channel Advertisement in india, as a result of Greatfull Advertisement Launch many companys who availed the service with us resulted in awesome  experiance

Digital Marketing Company in Annanagar Madurai 

Digital Marketing Company in Annanagar Madurai

DigitalTout.com Is a Entity of   leading  Private Limited Company Engaged in  digital marketing, company with result driven approach. we believe in Result First – Pay Later digital marketing. The company offers e-automate, it is a leading digital marketing company with result driven approach, which enables to manage common business processes, such as accounting, Social Media Optimization, contract processing, Digital market services, an add-on product for e-automate, which digitalTout.com connects dealers to digital marketing in real-time and automatically generates purchase market as selections are companies.

 

Digital marketing has marketing has a very good potential to increase sales but has been utilized fully software in india.the right way to digital market tool marketing strategy. seamless automation needed  for the business Incredible future of the digital market.

Digital Marketing Solution:

All your Services are executed by proffessionals who have rich experiance in the field of Digital Marketing Channel Advertisement in india, as a result of Greatfull Advertisement Launch many companys who availed the service with us resulted in awesome  experiance, you can call us @7305777703

Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice

Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice

As of January 2017, the number across cadres is far below the mandated 27%

At a time when President Ram Nath Kovind has appointed a five-member commission to examine sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) “to achieve greater social justice,” a reality check shows that representation of OBCs in the workforce in Central Government offices falls far short of achieving the 27% quota recommended by the Mandal Commission.

Data furnished under the Right to Information (RTI) Act by 24 of the 35 Union Ministries, 25 of the 37 Central departments and various constitutional bodies reveal that 24 years since the implementation of the Mandal Commission recommendations, across various groups of employees, the OBCs have not optimally benefited from it.

According to the Union Ministry for Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the reservation for OBCs is being implemented from September 8, 1993. Replies provided under the RTI Act by the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) show that as on January 1, 2017, only 17% of the Group A officers in the 24 Ministries belong to the OBCs. The representation among the Group B officers is even lower at 14%.

Likewise, only 11% of the Group C employees are from the OBCs and in Group D, the figure is 10%.

Incidentally, in July last year, Union Minister of State for Personnel Jitendra Singh informed the Lok Sabha that as on January 1, 2014, OBC representation in 71 Ministries/Departments was 19.28%. A reason, he cited, for the shortfall in meeting the Mandal Commission mandate was that OBC candidates appointed up to 1993 (when reservation kicked in) were not included for counting their representation. Besides, he said, there is generally a time gap between occurrence of vacancies and filling them as recruitment is a time-consuming process.

Cut to the present: in the cumulative staffing position of the 24 Ministries, 25 departments (out of 37) and eight constitutional bodies (such as the PMO, the President’s Secretariat and the ECI), which provided information under the RTI Act — 14% of Group A officers are from the OBCs. The figures for Group B, C and D employees are 15%, 17% and 18% respectively. In some cases, the under representation of OBCs is glaring. For instance, in the Cabinet Secretariat, which has 64 Group A officers, not one is from the OBCs, whereas 60 belong to the Open Competition (OC) category and four are from the Scheduled Castes.

In the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, only 25 of the 503 Group A officers belong to the OBCs.

In 2015, the representation of Group A OBC officers was only 10.71% and Group B officers 7.18% across 12 ministries, 10 departments and five constitutional bodies which furnished information under the RTI Act then. In 2013, OBCs constituted 9.43% of the Group A officers in 55 Central Government agencies.

“These figures don’t tell the entire story because among the 11 ministries which refused to provide employee data under the RTI Act this year are the Railways, Defence, Home and Finance, which are large recruiters. The bigger ministries account for 91.25% of the central government jobs. Whereas the data provided by the 24 ministries account for only 8.75% of the total jobs. If you go by the March 2011 Census of Central Government Employees, the Railways has 13,28,199 regular employees and we don’t have the community-based employee data for it,” points out Dr. E.Muralidharan, a Chennai-based activist, who filed the application under the RTI Act. In real terms, as against an estimated 31 lakh Central Government employees, the data pertains to only 2,71,375 employees, he added.

In 2015 when he had sought details of OBC employees, as many as 40 ministries and 48 departments refused to part with the information. “An Office Memorandum (O.M. -No.43011/10./2002-Estt.Res) dated December 19, 2003 issued by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions makes it mandatory for each Ministry/Department to send a report regarding representation of SCs, STs and OBCs in services. But this is followed in breach,” rued the IIT Madras alumnus.

Dr. Muralidharan recalled that in June 2013, the Ministry of Personnel had issued a detailed memorandum (No. 36038/1(i)/2013 Estt.Res), on measures to be taken to fill up backlog vacancies reserved for SCs/STs/OBCs “at the earliest” monitored at the “highest level”.

The memorandum had identified certain reasons for non-filling up of reserved vacancies such as lack of finishing skills – English fluency or interview skills – and scarcity of qualified reserved category persons.

Among the recommendations given by the Ministry was that the Departments concerned may take a decision within six months on launching a special recruitment drive providing certain relaxations so that the vacancies may be filled up. It had further said that finishing training be imparted for reserved category candidates. Another recommendation was to constitute a committee with representations from the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Tribal Affairs, major ministries like Railways and Home Affairs to find out specific reasons for backlog in filling up of vacancies and suggest measures to enhance the employability of reserved category candidates.

“The memorandum of June 2013 directed all ministries / departments to take follow up action on the decision taken by the Government and sent quarterly progress reports on implementing the recommendations to the Ministry of Personnel,” the RTI Act applicant said.

Subsequently, the Union Minister of State for Personnel Jitendra Singh informed Parliament that based on the recommendations of a committee headed by the Secretary, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, time bound action plan for filling up backlog reserved vacancies was intimated to all Departments/Ministries on November 11, 2014 for filling up such vacancies by August 2016. This Action Plan included study of reasons for non-filling of backlog reserved vacancies, review of prescribed standards, if required; conducting Special Recruitment Drive and conducting pre-recruitment training programmes.

“If the Action Plan was put into motion, we wouldn’t have had the kind of poor representation for OBCs (as of January 1, 2017), as the details furnished under the RTI Act show,” contended Dr. Muralidharan.

S.K. Kharventhan, former member National Commission for Backward Classes, said among the reasons for under-representation of OBCs is non-filling of backlog vacancies and non-implementation of the communal roster system for filling vacancies. “As per Supreme Court judgment, they should follow only a post-based roster system. But in many departments only vacancy-based communal roster system is followed,” he alleged.

K. Danasekar, secretary general, All India Confederation of OBC Employees’ Welfare Associations, said, “Some two-three years ago, of the 83 Deputy Secretary level officers in Central Government only three were from OBCs and five belonged to the SC/STs.” According to him, only OBC candidates who enter government service at the age of 23 or so eventually qualify to get promoted as Deputy Secretary or Under Secretary. “Many enter the service when they are 30 and therefore retire below the rank of Deputy Secretary. That is why the OBC representation will be higher in Group C and D category of employees and not in Group A or B,” he said.

Mr. Danasekar added that in the Finance Ministry, the OBC representation in Group A is likely to be better. “Usually in the UPSC examination, many from the OBCs qualify for the Indian Revenue Service, which is lower in order of preference as opposed to the IFS, IAS and IPS,” he explained.

Courtesy –The Hindu

Despite The Above Fact Mr.Sivan achivements has Lot More to Applause!

Sivan, a space scientist from Tamil Nadu, is now Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Taking over the reins from A.S. Kiran Kumar, Sivan becomes the ninth head of the 50-year-old organisation. So here are some facts about the man of the moment:

Born to a farmer in Tarakkanvilai village of Kanyakumari, Sivan completed his schooling in Tamil medium government schools. A self-made and hard-working person, he taught himself without any guidance from family or attending tutions; yet he became the first graduate in his family.
In 1980, Sivan completed his bachelor’s course in aeronautical engineering from Madras Institute of Technology. After completing a master’s course in aerospace engineering from IISC Bengaluru, he joined the ISRO in 1982.
In ISRO, Sivan was part of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) project where he contributed significantly to the planning, designing, integration, and analysis of the mission.
In his career spanning over three decades, Sivan has worked in projects including GSLV, PSLV, and GSLV MkIII, and has been the project director of GSLV rocket.
Sivan completed his PhD from IIT Bombay in 2006 and also holds an honorary doctorate in science from Sathyabama University, which he received in 2014.
For his contribution to space research, the rocket scientist has received many awards, including the Shri Hari Om Ashram Prerit Dr Vikram Sarabhai Research Award in 1999, ISRO Merit Award in 2007, and Dr. Biren Roy Space Science Award in 2011.
Sivan is a Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering, Indian Systems Society for Science and Engineering, Aeronautical Society of India, and Systems Society of India. With his expertise in all areas pertaining to launching vehicles, he published a book titled Integrated Design for Space Transportation System in the year 2015.
 
Sivan was working as the director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, before taking charge as the Chairman of ISRO. Along with being the Chairman, he has also been appointed as the Secretary of Department of Space and Chairman of the Space Commission.
In February 2017, India set a world record by launching 104 satellites with a single flight of PSLV. Sivan played a key role in setting that record.
In the first year of his three-year period of Chairmanship, two important missions for him will be the launch of Chandrayaan-II and the developmental flight of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-MK3) in April. Apart from that, he will have to work towards designing bigger launch vehicles and reducing the cost of satellites.
Sivan’s predecessor Alur Seelin Kiran Kumar worked in the satellite payload and applications domains in his 40-year-long career in ISRO. With his expertise, Kiran made significant contributions to the design and development of Electro-Optical Imaging Sensors (for Airborne, Geostationary Orbit and Low Earth Orbit satellites).
Kiran also played an important role in developing the strategy that helped steer Mars Orbiter Spacecraft towards Mars.

Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice/ Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice / Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice / Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice /

Green Trend Madurai -Beauty Tips

முகப்பருவை குறைப்பதற்கு சாப்பிடவேண்டிய மற்றும் சாப்பிடக்கூடாத உணவுகள்

 

சில உணவுகள் முகப்பருவைச் சிறப்பாக கட்டுப்படுத்துவதாக ஆராய்ச்சிகள் தெரிவிக்கின்றன.

விற்றமின் E, அமிலங்கலந்த கொழுப்புணவுகள், மக்னீசியம்போன்ற தாதுப்புக் கள், முகப்பருவை ஏற்படுத்தும் பக்ரீரியாக்களுக்கு எதிராக போராட்டி முப்பரு ஏற்படாமல் தடுக்கின்றன..உணவுகளைப் பாதுகாப்பதற்குப் பயன்படுத்தும் பொருட்களைத்தவிர்ப்பதும், கரையக்கூடிய கொழுப்புக்கள், பூரித்த கொழுப்புக்கள் மற்றும் சீனி என்பவற்றில் காணப்படும் சத்துக்கள் முகப்பருவிற்கு எதிராகச் செயற்படுகின்றன. , எல்லோருடைய உடலும் ஒரே உணவிற்கு ஒரேமாதிரி பிரதிபலிப்பதில்லை என்பதனை நினைவில் வைத்து கொள்ளுங்கள்ஆகையால்,ஒவ்வொரு உணவாக சாப்பிட்டு அதன் தாக்கத்தைக் கவனித்து, முப்பரு ஏற்படுத்துமாயின் அந்தவகை உணவைத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளுங்கள். அத்துடன் முகப்பருக்களை அவை உடைக்குமாயின் அவற்றைச் சாப்பாட்டில் சேர்த்துக் கொள்ளலாம்.
மாசற்ற தோல் இருக்கவேண்டும் என்பதனையே ஆண்களும் பெண்களும் ஒருமித்து விரும்புகிறார்கள்.
பருக்கள் நிறைந்த முகத்துடன் ஜனங்கள் மத்தியில் உலாவுவது மிகவும் சங்கடமான விடயமாக இருக்கும்.
முகப்பருவை ஏற்படுத்துவதற்கான பலகாரணிகள் இருக்கலாம் அவற்றும் மன அழுத்தம், மற்றும் கவலை, அல்லது ஹார்மோன் ஏற்றத்தாழ்வுகள் போன்றவிடயங்கள் உண்டு.. அவைகள் உங்கள் கட்டுப்பாட்டிற்கு அப்பாற்பட்டவையாகும்.
.எனினும், சில சத்துக்கள் நிறைந்த உணவுகளைத் தொடர்ந்து உண்பதால் அவை கணிசமாக முகப்பருவைத் தடுக்க உதவும் என்று ஆராய்ச்சியா ளர்கள் கண்டுபிடித்துள்ளார்கள்..ஒவ்வொரு நபருக்கும் ஒரே தாக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் பொதுவான உணவுகள் இல்லை என்பதை நினைவில் வைத்து கொள்ளுங்கள் –
உதாரணமாக, ஒரு வெண்ணெய் பழத்தை (avocado) சாப்பிடுவது ஒரு நபருக்கு முகப்பருவைத் தடுக்க உதவுகிறது, ஆனால் உணவு ஒவ்வாமை அல்லது உணர்திறன் சிக்கல் காரணமாக மற்றவர்களின் உடல்நல பிரச்ச னைகளுக்கு வழிவகுக்கலாம்.நம் உடல்கள் ஒரே உணவிற்கு வித்தியாசமாக செயல்படலாம்.ஏனெனில் நம் ஒவ்வொருவருமே வித்தியாசமான உடலமைப்கொண்டுள்ளோம்
. மெதுவாக உங்கள் உணவில் புதிய உணவுகளை அறிமுகப்படுத்துவது சிறப்பானதாகும் .அவ்வகையான உண்ணவிற்கு நல்ல அறிகுறிகளை உடல் காண்பிக்குமாயின் மெதுவாக அந்த உணவின் அளவைக் கூட்டிக் கொள்ளலாம்
முகப்பருவைத்தடுக்கும் 8 வகையான உணவு வகைளைச் சாப்பிடத் தொடங்குதல்.
முகப்பருவை தடுப்பதற்கும் உங்கள் தோல் ஆரோக்கியத்திற்கும் நல்ல உணவுப்பட்டியல் கீழே கொடுக்கப்படுகின்றது.
1Almonds பாதாம்
பாதம்பருப்பில் மிக அதிகளவிலான விட்மிக்ஈ உள்ளது. அழகு நிபுணர்களால் இந்த உணவு அதிகம் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகின்றது. இதுதோலை அதிகம் பாது காக்கின்றது. இதில் அதிகம் பிறபொருள் எதிரிகள் காணப்படும் இவை தோல் பருக்களை ஏற்படுத்தும் பக்கீரியா, மற்றும் பங்கசு என்பவற்றிற்கு எதிராக போரிட்டு தோலைப் பாதுகாக்கும். ஒவ்வொருநாளும் சிறிதளவு பாதாம பருப்பைச் சாப்பிட்டு அதன் வித்தியாசத்தை உணர்ந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்.
Avocado வெண்ணைப் பழம்
வெண்ணைப் பழத்தில் விட்டமின் ஈ மற்றும் விட்டமின் சி ஆகியவ்வை அதிகம் உண்டு, தோல் அழற்சியை வராமல் பாதுகாக்கும்
Red Grapes சிகப்பு திராட்சை
. திராட்சை, குறிப்பாக சிவப்பு வகை இயற்கை பிறபொருள் எதிரிகளைக் கொண்டதாகும் அத்துடன் இரசாயனங்கள் ஏராளமாக்கொண்டதாகும் . இது தோல் அழற்சியிலிருந்து காப்பாற்றும்.
. இது முகப்பரு மற்றும் அரிக்கும் தோலழற்சி மற்றும் தடிப்பு தோல் அழற்சி eczema போன்ற பிற தோல் நோய்த்தொற்றுகளை கட்டுப்படுத்தவும் தடுக்கவும் உதவுகிறது. இந்த சுவையான பழம் உங்கள் தோல் மீது பல்வேறு ஒவ்வாமை எதிர்வினைகளை பக்க விளைவுகள் என்பவற்றையும் கட்டுப்படுத்தும்.
உங்கள் அழகு தொடர்பான அணைத்து கேள்விகளுக்கும் எங்கள் அழகு கலை நிபுணருடன் தொடர்புகொள்ளுங்கள்
Artichokes கூனைப்பூ
இது நார்த்தன்மை கொண்ட ஒரு சிறந்த உணவாகும் இதில் பிறபொருள் எதிரிகள் அதிகம் காணப்படும் அத்துடன் விற்றமின் சீயும் அதிகமாக் காணப்படும் . இது அதிக செரிமானத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் அத்துடன் உங்கள் தோல் தொற்றுகள் ஏற்படாது பாதுகாக்கும்.ஆரோக்கியமான மினுமினுப்பான தோலைப் பெறுவதற்கு கூனைப்பூ மிகவும் சிறந்த்தாகும்
Garlic வெள்ளைப்பூண்டு
வெள்ளைப் பூண்டில் அலிசீன் என்றழைக்கப்படும் இரசாயணம் அதிகம் இருப்பதால், அது முகப்ருவீக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் பக்ரீரியாவை கொல்லுகின்றது. அழகுநிபுணர்கள் முகப்பருக்களைத் தடுப்பதற்கு பூண்டு அரைத்து முகத்தில் பூசுகின்றார்கள்.
Brown Rice சிகப்பு நாட்டரிசி
. சிகப்பு அரிசியில் விட்டமின் பி, புரதம், பிறபொருள்எதிரிகள், , மற்றும் மக்னீசியம் நிறைந்த நிலையில், சிகப்பு அரிசி, ஹார்மோன்களை ஒழுங்குபடுத்துவதில் மிகவும் உதவியாக இருக்கும்,அதனால் முகப்பரு ஏற்படுவது தடுக்கப்படும்..
Broccoli பச்சைப் பூக்கோசு

Fresh green vegetables, isolated on white, macro close up with copy space
.இதனைச் சாப்பிடுவதற்கு உங்களுக்கு அதிகம் விருப்பமில்லாது இருக்கலாம், ஆனால் முப்பருவைத் தடுக்கவேண்டுமாயின் இந்த மரக்கறியை நீங்கள் சாப்பிட்டேயாகவேண்டும். இதில் விற்றமின் A, B, C, E, K,ஆகியவை இணைந்து தோலுக்கு எதிராக ஏற்படும் தொற்றுகளுக்கு எதிராகச் செயற்படுகின்றன.
Fatty Fish கொழுத்த மீன்
ஒமேகா -3 மற்றும் ஒமேகா -6 ஆகியவை இயற்கையான கொழுப்பு அமிலங்களாக இருக்கின்றன, அவை மீன் போன்ற உணவின்மூலமே பெற்றுக் கொள்ள முடியும்..இவை முகப்பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கு எதிராகத் தாக்கம் செய்து முகப்பருவருவதைத் தடுக்கின்றன.
 call us 9842124400
முகப்பருக்களைத் தூண்டக்கூடிய பொதுவான உணவுகள்.
உணவுகள் பற்றி நாம் அவதானம் செலுத்தும்போது முகப்பருக்கைளைத் தூண்டுகிறதும், கட்டுப்படுத்துகிறதும் தடுக்கிறதுமானவற்றைத் தெரிவுசெய்வதில் கவம் செலுத்தல் வேண்டும்.
குறிப்பு : As mentioned earlier, not everyone reacts the same way to the same foods. உணவுகள் ஒவ்வொருத்தருக்கும் ஒவ்வொருவிதமாகச் செயற்படும் என்பதை நாம் ஏற்கனவே பார்த்துள்ளோம்.
உமக்கு முப்பருக்கள் இருக்குமாயின் ஒன்றொ அல்லது இரண்டோ உணவு வகைகளைத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளுதல் அவசியமாகும். உதாரணமாக பால்வகை உணவுகளை ஒருவாரத்திற்குத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளலாம்.இரண்டாவதாக கொழுப்பு உணவுகளைத் தவித்துக் கொள்ளுதல் போன்ற செயன்முறையில் ஈடுபடலாம். . முப்பருக்கள் இல்லாமல் போகும்வரை இவ்வாறு உணவுகளைத் தவிர்த்துப் பார்த்துக் கொள்ளல் வேண்டும்.
Sugar சீனி
முகப்பரு ஏற்படுவதற்கும் சீனி பயன்பாட்டிற்கும் சம்பந்தமுள்ளதாக கல்விப்படிப்புக்கள் கூறுகின்றன.
இதனால் நீங்கள் இனிப்புப் பொருட்கள் சாப்பிடும் போது பருக்கள் ஏற்படும் என்று அர்த்தமல்ல. பொதுவாக சீனிப்பதார்த்தங்கள் சாப்பிட்பின்பு செரிமானம் அடைந்து விடும்.. உதாரணமாக ஒரு குளிர்பானம் குடிப்பதனால் அல்லது இனிப்பு பண்டம் சாப்பிடுவதனால் சிறதளவு சீனியின் அளவை அதிகரிக்கும். இது ஒரு மணிநேரம்வரை நீடிக்கும். சிலவேளை களில் ஒரு வாரங்க ளுக்கு நீடிக்கும். நீங்கள் அதிகம் சீனிப்பண்டங்களைச் சாப்பிட்டு அதனால் பருக்கள் உண்டா குமாயின் சீனிப் பண்டம் பாவிப்தைச் சிறிது குறைத்து அதன் பிரதிபலனை அவதானி க்கவும்.
Cow’s Milk பசுப்பால்.
பசுப்பால் பருகுதற்கும் பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கும் சம்பந்தம் இருப்பதாக ஆய்வுகள் கூறுகின்றன.
2 விஞ்ஞானிகள் சரியான காரணத்தை உறுதிப்படுத்தாவிட்டாலும், இந்த கோரிக்கையை ஆதரிக்கும் பல கோட்பாடுகள் உள்ளன.பசுப்பால் இரத்த சர்க்கரை ஒரு மாற்றத்தைக் காண்பிக்கும் என்று அறியப்படுகிறது, இதனால் உங்கள் இன்சுலின் அளவு அதிகரிக்கிறது இது உங்கள் தோல் மீது எண்ணெய் உற்பத்தி அதிகரிப்பை ஏற்படுத்தலாம் மேலும், பெரும்பாலான பசுப் பால் ஹார்மோன்களைக் கொண்டிருக்கிறது, இது தோல் சிசுக்களை அதிக வளர்ச்சியடையச் செய்யலாம், அவை முகப்பருக்களை ஏற்படுத்தலாம்.
Processed Foods பதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட உணவுகள்
நீங்கள் வெள்ளை ரொட்டி, பெட்டிகளில் அடைக்கப்பட்ட தானியங்கள், வெள்ளை அரிசி, உருளைக்கிழங்குபொரியல்கள் ,, கேக்குகள்,, மற்றும் சாக்லேட் போன்ற உணவுகள் அதிகம் சாப்பிடுபவர்களாயிருந்தால் இருந்தால், உங்களுக்கு அதிகமாக முகப்பரு ஏற்படுவதற்கான சந்தர்ப்பங்கள் உருவாகலாம். இவற்றை நீங்கள் உட்கொள்வதால் இவை அதிகம் வி ரவாக செரிமானம் அடைந்து, இரத்த்தில் சீனியின் அளவை அதிகரிப்பதால், முகப்பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கான சந்தர்ப்பங்கள் ஏற்படலாம்.. இது உங்கள் சரீரத்தில் அதிகளவு ஹாமோ னின் அளவை அதிகரிக்கலாம்,தோல் வீக்கத்தை அதிகரிக்கலாம் அதனால் பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கான சந்தர்ப்பங்கள் அதிகரிக்கும். பதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட உணவிற்குப்பதிலாக தானிய உணவுகள், மரக்கறிஉணவுகள், வத்தாளங்கிழங்கு மற்றும் சிகப்பு அரிசி உணவுபான்ற என்பவற்றை உண்ணலாம்.
Fast-Foods
துரித உணவு குழந்தை பருவ ஆஸ்த்துமா போன்ற கடுமையான நிலைமைகளுடன் தொடர்புபட்டது, இது முக்கியமாக உடலின் அதிகரித்த வீக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் இந்த வீக்கமானது நிச்சயமாக முகப்பருக்களை உண்டாக்கும். இதனால் நீங்கள் முகப்பருக்களிலிருந்து உங்களைக் காத்துக் கொள்வதற்காக துரித உணவுகளைப்குப்பதிலாக யோகட், சலாட் போன்றவற்றைப்பயன்படுத்தலாம்.
Junk Foods. துரித உணவுகள்.
இவ்வகையான உணவுகள் முக்கியமாக குழந்தைகயைம் இளைஞர்களை யும் இலக்கு வைத்து செய்யப்படுகின்றன. மேலும் இளம் குழந்தைகளில் முகப்பரு உண்டாவதற்கு இவை காரணமாகின்றன. இவை பார்வைக்கு அழகாக இருக்கும்படி வர்ணநிறங்களினால் உருவாக்கபடுகின்றன. . இவ்வகையான உணவுகள் அதிகம் கொள்வனவு செய்யப்படுவதற்காக சில பாதிப்புக்களை ஏற்படுத்தக்கூடிய பயனற்ற வாசனை இரசாயணங்களைக் கொண்டும் தயாரிக்கப்படுகின்றன. இவற்றில் ஆபத்தான நிறைவான கொழுப்புக்களும் அடங்கியுள்ளன.அத்துடன் சோடியம், கலோரிகள் அற்ற செயற்கைச் சீனி, மற்றும் பாது காப்பதற்கான பதார்த்தங்கள் சேர்க்கப்படுகின்றன. இவை தவிர்க்கப்படவேண்டிய உணவுகளாகும்.
பிரஞ்சு பொரியல்கள், சாக்லேட்டுக்கள், மென்மையான பானங்கள், சீஸ்பேகர்கள், பீஸ்ஸாக்கள் மற்றும் வறுத்த வெங்காயம் என்பன உங்கள் முகப்பருப்பிரச்சனைகளை இன்னும் மோசமாக்கும். அதனால் இவற்றைத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளுங்கள்.

way to reduce your fat belly!

way to reduce your fat belly!

Here is a great tip to lose weight in 2018. All you need to do is tweak your diet only a bit and this one change is easy to follow and is super effective as well.

Eat five servings of veggies every day and every day here means every single day no matter what. Vegetables are low in calories and high in fibre. This keeps you fuller for longer and stops you from bingeing. Also, vegetables are packed with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. When you replace your other meals with vegetables you intake fewer calories without missing the feeling of fullness.
So how does this benefit you? Not only the fiber in the veggies makes you feel fuller for longer but according to studies, every gram of fiber we eat essentially cancels out 7 calories. Fiber-rich diet is also linked with less belly fat and regulating blood sugar.
A study was conducted where people were divided into two groups. People of both the groups ate the same number of calories but the people who had more plant food had lower BMI, slimmer waist and less inflammation. Eating more veggies every day gives you protection against many common chronic diseases and a healthier gut microbe which in turn is related to a stronger immunity. According to a study conducted at St. Andrews University, people who increased their intake of veggies were rated as more attractive than those who did not.

Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?

Why  Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?

A latest study on Pregnant Women consuming eggs resulted in the baby born with a higher IQs. But this study included about 9 eggs per day which is too big for even a normal human being.
According to the study in Cornell University with 26 pregnant women in their third trimesters, the amount of Choline present in the eggs directly affects the babies’ memories and brain development. However this unusual number of 9 eggs can be fatal if the cholesterol level is increased to a certain abnormal percentage.
The ability to think and process information, creating results based on many factors and decision making skills is associated with this study. A study increase in these factors is seen on the babies whose mother consumed eggs adequately.
Choline is important for mothers to consume on their pregnancy period, about 480 mg obtained from eggs, red meat, fish, Poultry and nuts. These protein based diet is considered to be a nutrient dense resource for the development of the baby’s integral organs and parts.
The half of the researched Women consumed up to 930 mg of the nutrient from whole eggs resulted in giving birth to babies with higher IQs compared to other group which consumed a normal 480 mg thats why   Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs.
Though the study was published the results are subjected to further study keeping the various environmental factors on the analysis. The researched group is very small to gain confident evaluation of the suggested study. Maternal diet with moderation in every nutrient is always a balanced and also a safe go for parents expecting a healthy child.  why  Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs/  why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs

Nutrients In Eggs

Eggs are a nutrient goldmine!

One large egg has varying amounts of 13 essential vitamins and minerals, high-quality protein, all for 70 calories.
While egg whites contain some of the eggs’ high-quality protein, riboflavin and selenium, the majority of an egg’s nutrient package is found in the yolk. Nutrients such as:
Vitamin D, critical for bone health and immune function. Eggs are one of the only foods that naturally contain vitamin D.
Choline, essential for normal functioning of all cells, but particularly important during pregnancy to support healthy brain development of the fetus.
Lutein and zeaxanthin, antioxidants that are believed to reduce the risk of developing cataracts and slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration, a disease that develops with age.thats Why  Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?
Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?/Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?/.Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?/

chennai directory

Panindiamart  is a leading Web chennai Directory which gives Exact details about  Chennai based Businesses / Companies / chennai directory/Professionals / Services / Artistes / Industries / Hospitals / NGOs with over 12,775 listings. Visit us for Chennai related Entertainment, Education, Career, Matrimonial, Real Estates, Healthcare, Corporate Web Sites & Chennai Restaurants Guide, Chennai Shop Branch Locator, Chennai Car & Bike Dealers, Chennai ATM Locators  click the below links in chennai Directory  and get your information

  • Chennai,  originally  known as Madras Patnam, was located in  the  province  of Tondaimandalam,  an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the  Pennar  river of Cuddalore. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram.Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century A.D. by Tondaiman Ilam  Tiraiyan, who  was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. It  is  believed  that Ilam Tiraiyan must have subdued Kurumbas, the original inhabitants of the region  and  established  his rule over  Tondaimandalam.  

    Subsequent  to  Ilam Tiraiyan, the region seemed to have been ruled by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi.The  Chola  occupation  of Tondaimandalam was put to an end by the  Andhra Satavahana  incursions  from  the north under their King  Pulumayi  II.  They  appointed chieftains to look after the Kancheepuram region. Bappaswami, who is considered  as  the  first Pallava to rule from Kancheepuram,  was  himself  a chieftain (of the tract round) at Kancheepuram under the Satavahana empire in  the beginning  of  the 3rd century A.D., The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, became independent rulers of Kancheepuram and its surrounding areas.

    Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century A.D.to the closing years of the 9th century except for the interval of some decades  when the region was under Kalabharas.  Pallavas were defeated by the Chola under Aditya-I by about 879 A.D. and  the region was brought under Chola rule.Pandyas  under  Jatavarman  Sundara Pandya rose to power and  the  region  was brought  under Pandya rule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in  1264 A.D.Pandya’s rule over this region lasted a little over half a century followed  by Bahmini kingdom with the extension of Delhi Sultanate under Khilji dynasty especially under the rule of Alauddin Khilji, a pioneer of all revenue worksDuring 1361, Kumara Kampana II, the son of Vijayanagar King, Bukka I conquered and  established  Vijayanagar rule in Tondaimandalam.

    The  Vijayanagar  rulers appointed  chieftain known as Nayaks who ruled over the different  regions  of the province almost independently.Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, an influential chieftain under Venkata  III,  who was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city, gave the grant of a piece of land  lying between the river Cooum almost at the point it enters the sea  andanother  river known as Egmore river to the English in 1639. On this piece  of  waste   land   was  founded  the  Fort  St. George  exactly for   business  considerations.  In honour of Chennappa Nayak, father of Venkatapathy  Nayak, who  controlled  the entire coastal  country from Pulicat in the north  to  the Portuguese  settlement of Santhome, the settlement which had grown  up  around  Fort St. George was named after Chennapatanam. 

    The older area called the Madraspatnam lay  to  the  north of it.  Later on, the intervening space  between  the  older northern site of Madraspatnam came to be quickly built over with houses of the new settlers (as the two expanded) and that the two villages  became  virtually one town. While the official centre of the settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras Patnam to the combined town. Golkonda  forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646 and brought Chennai  and  its  immediate surroundings under his control. On the fall  of Golkonda  in  1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors  of Delhi. 

    Firmans  were  issued by the Mughal Emperor  granting the  rights  of English company in Chennai. In  the  later  part of the seventeenth century, Chennai  steadily progressed  during  the  period of Agency and under many Governors. During the  regime  of Governor  Elihi Yale (1687-92),the most important event was the formation  of  the institution of a mayor and Corporation for the city of Chennai. In  1693,  a  perwanna was received from the local Nawab granting  the  towns  Tondiarpet,  Purasawalkam  and Egmore to the company. Thomas Pitt  became  the Governor  of Chennai  in  1698 and governed  for eleven  years.  This  period  witnessed  remarkable  development  of  trade and  increase  in  wealth.  

    The important  events during this period were the blockade of Chennai by Daud  Khan  and  its repulsion and the acquisition of additional suburban villages by  the English.  Thiruvottiyur,  Vysarpadi, Kathivakkam, Nungambakkam  and  Satangadu  were  made  as a free gift to the English in 1708. In 1735,  Chintadripet  was taken  over  and in 1742 Vepery, Perambur and Periamet were presented  to  the British. Nicholas Morse was the Governor from 1744 to 1746. The most important event  during his time was the outbreak of war between England and France  and  the  consequent struggle for supremacy between the French and the  English  in South  India. Chennai was captured by the French in 1744 but consequent on  the treaty  of  peace of Aix-La-Chapelle, Chennai was restored to  the  English  in 1749. 

    George Pigot was the Governor for the period from 1755 to 1763. The period  is remarkable  for the fact that the Company form a trading  corporation,  owning isolated  towns, forts and factories, became a ruling power  controlling  vast territories. Charles  Bourchier  became Governor in 1767. During his period Hyder  Ali  who usurped  the  Sovereignty of Mysore joined hands with the Nizam and  began  an offensive  on Chennai. In 1761, a treaty was signed between Hyder Ali  and  the Company  for  an  alliance  and  mutual  restitution  of  the  conquests.  The Governance of the Carnatic became the responsibility of the Chennai  Government which could not maintain a large army without the revenue of Nawabs. In  1763,the  English  got the district of Chengalpattu known as Chennai Jagir  for  the maintenance of the army.Lord  Macartney  took  charge of the Chennai Government  in  1781.  

    During  his period,  Chennai was turned into an important Naval base. Major General  Medows became Governor in 1790. The position of the English was made secure in  South India. the elimination of other foreign power and settlement of the limits  of native  territory  gave stability and paved the way for an era  of  commercial development.  In  1792, in a new treaty Mohammed Ali handed  over  the  entire management  of the Carnatic to the English and accepted in return  a  pension. Another  important event of this period was the outbreak of Mysore war.  Tippu was  killed in 1799 and the whole of Carnatic ceded to the British.  

    Thus  the supremacy  of  the  English in South India was established.  The  present  day territorial limits of the city existed in the shape of scattered villages  for centuries  before  the advent of the British. In the process of  growth,  many villages got agglomerated into a single unit. The shape and extent of the city which existed during 1939-40 was reached even during the opening years of 19th century. The period in between 1803 to 1827 represents consolidation and development of institutions.  

    Sir Edward Elliot was the important Governor of  Chennai  during this period. He appointed a Judicial Commission with Munro as its President in 1814.  Several  reforms  in  the  administrative  system  were  made  by   the Commission.  Sir Thomas Munro became the Governor in 1820 and  continued  till 1827. He tried his best to improve literacy. He initiated English education in Chennai  and established a body called Board of Public Instructions to  improve and direct public education. Important  improvement made to Chennai city during the first half of  the  19th century  was  the  progress  made in the  establishment  of  institutions  for professional and technical education. 

    School of Industrial Art was started  in 1850,  Civil Engineering College in 1834 and Madras Medical College  in  1835,etc.  The  Madras University was started in September 1857.  The Chennai  High Court  was created in June 1862. The Railway Company in Chennai was  formed  in July  1845.  the first construction work began on 9th June 1853 and  in  1858,South Indian Railway was formed having Chennai as the Railway Headquarters. Lord  Hobart who was the Governor from 1872 to 1875 initiated  Chennai  Harbour project. The Congress party came to life during the period 1881-90. The Indian National Congress held its session in 1887 at Chennai.

    The First Governor of Chennai in the 20th century was Lord Ampthill (1901-06).  Sir Arthur Law-by was the Governor from 1906-1911 and Lord Pentland from  1912-19. The  important Landmarks during this period were the establishment  of  Chennai Electric Supply Corporation in 1906 and opening of Indian Bank in 1907. During  1934 and 1936 for a short period, two Indians Sir M.D. Usman Sahib and Sir  K. Venkatareddy Naidu acted as Governors of Chennai.  In 1937, the Ministry of Shri C.  Rajagopalachari  came  into power for two years.  The  influence  of  the Governors on the administration considerably diminished. The British  departed on  15th  August

  • Historical Events at a Glance

    1639         Madras founded .
    The English get Madras Patnam  from Ayyapa Naicker.
    1640         Francis Day and Cogan landed with 25 Europeans.
    Foundation laid for Fort St.George.
    1668         Triplicane annexed to the city.
    1678         Foundation laid for St. Mary’s Church in Fort St. George.
    1679         St.Mary’s Church Completed.
    1688         Madras City Municipal Corporation inaugurated.
    1693         Egmore, Purasawalkam and Tondiarpet annexed to the City.


    1708         Thiruvottiyur, Nungambakkam, Vyasarpady,
    Kottivakkam and Sathangadu  –
    Five neighbouring Villages annexed;
    wall built around Black Town.
    1711         First Printing Press erected in Madras.
    1735         Chintadripet was formed.
    1742         Veperi, Perimet, Perambur and Pudupakkam annexed to the city.
    1746         The French return Madras to the English;
    Santhome and Mylapore annexed to the City.


    1758         French Commander Lawly siege Madras.
    1759         French siege ended.
    1767         Hyder Ali’s first invasion.
    1768         Chepauk palace built by Nawab of Arcot.
    1769         Hyder Ali’s Second invasion.
    1777         Veerappillai appointed as First Kotthawal-
    Hence the name Kotthawal Chavadi.
    1783         Fort St. George repaired and attains the present shape.
    1784         The First Newspaper –Madras Courier.
    1785         First Post Office.
    1795         Triplicane Big Mosque-Walajah Mosque built.


    1817         Madras Literary Society founded.
    1826         Board of Public Instructions founded.
    1831         First Commercial Bank –Madras Bank.
    First Census in the City Population
     39,785.
    1832         Madras Club founded.
    1834         First Survey School inaugurated –
    Later developed as Engineering College.
    1835         First Medical College –
    Later became Madras Christian College.
    1841         Ice House was built –
    Ice brought from America through ships was stored here;
    Later named as Vivekananda House.
    1842         First Light House.
    1846         Pachaiappan School; Later Pachaiappa’s College.


    1851         Museum formed
    1853         Zoo formed.
    1855         University Board formed.
    1856         First Railway –Royapuram to Arcot.
    1857         Madras University founded.
    1864-65    Presidency College built.
    1868         Attempt to protected water supply.
    1873         First Birth Registered.
    Madras Mail Newspaper founded.
    Cosmopolitan Club founded.
    1874         University Senate house built.
    1876-78    Great Famine – Buckingham Canal dug.
    1878         The Hindu Newspaper founded.
    1882         First Telephone.
    1885         Marina Beach Road formed.
    1886         Indian National Congress Meet at Madras.
    Connemera Public Library founded.
    1889         High Court Building foundation laid.
    1894         First Car –  Mr. A.J. Boag, Director of Parry&Co,
    drove the Car on City Roads.
    1895         First Tram Car.
    1899         First Tamil Newspaper-Swadesamitran.


    1905         Port Trust formed.
    1906         Indian Bank founded.
    King Institute, Guindy founded.
    1914         Water mains and drainage formed.
    Street lights introduced.
    Kilpauk water works inaugurated.
    Endon bombardment-
    Endon German fighter Vessel bombarded the sea shore
     and
    disappeared – First World War.
    1917         First Aeroplane;
    Simpson & Co., arranged for the trial flight.
    1924         School of Indian Medicine.
    1925         Loyola College
    First Bus Transport.
    1930         First Broadcasting Station founded at Ripon Buildings Complex.
    1934         First Mayor – Raja Sir. Muthiah Chettiyar
    1938         All India Radio formed and
    broadcasting from Ripon Buildings ceased.


    1942         Second World War – Evacuation of Madras.
    1943         Japanese Fighter Plane dropped bombs on City and disappeared.


    1946         Mambalam, Saidapet, Govt. Farm, Puliyur, Kodambakkam,
    Saligramam, Adayar and Alandur Villages which formed part of
    Saidapet Municipality were annexed to the city.
                              

                     Sembiyam, Siruvallur, Peravallur, Small   Sembarambakkam
    and  Ayanavaram which formed part of Sembium Panchayat
    Board  were annexed to the city.

    Aminjikarai, Periyakudal, Maduvankarai Villages which formed
    part of  Aminjikarai  Panchayat Board were annexed.

    Part of Velacheri Village belonging to Velacheri Panchayat Board
    was also annexed to the city.

    1947         Indian National Flag Hoisted over Fort. St. George.
    1952         Nehru Stadium.
    1956         Gandhi Mandap.
    1959         Guindy Children’s Park.
    1969         World Tamil Congress.
    1971         Snake Park.
    1972         Madras Metropolitan Development Authority.
    1973         Madras Corporation Superceded.
    1974         Rajaji Mandap.
    Madras Television Centre.
    1975         Kamaraj Mandap.
    Valluvar Kottam.


    1976         New Light House.
    1977         Madras Metropolitan Water supply and Sewage Board
    Kanagam, Taramani, Thiruvanmiyur, Velacheri, Kodambakkam,
    Virugambakkam, Saligramam, Koyambedu, Thirumangalam,
    Villivakkam, Errukancheri, Kolathur, Kodungaiyur
    Panchayat areas annexed to the City;
    Madras reaches the present stage.
    1983         Zoo shifted to Vandalur.
    1988         Periyar Science Park
    Birla Planetarium.
    Madras Corporation’s Tri-centenary.
    Decentralisation of Administration.
    10 Circles formed.

     

    About Chennai

    ORIGIN AND GROWTH

    The Beginnings of Madras

    The beginnings of the City of Madras go back to the earliest stages of English commercial enterprise in India. The English East India Company was started in 1600. Twelve years later a Trading House or Factory was built at Surat on the West Coast under the protection of the Mughal Governor of Gujarat. On the Coromandel Coast the English first attempted a landing at Pulicat. The place is about 25 miles north of Madras and its great backwater, the Pulicat Lake, afforded a safe shelter for the shipping of those days. But the Dutch, who were the bitter rivals of the English, had already been settled at the place and had the ear of the local Nayak. Hence the English found it impossible to ply their trade advantageously at that place. They then attempted to settle at Peddapalli or Nizampatnam, which was at the mouth of a small channel of the Krishna Delta. But the climate of the place was deadly to the English merchants and this settlement had also to be abandoned after a few years of hopeless struggle.

    Masulipatnam was the chief port of the Muhammadan Kingdom of Golconda. It was well protected from the monsoon winds and was the chief market for diamonds and rubies for which South India was then famous, as well as for the valuable chintz and painted cloths which are even now produced in large quantities in its neighborhood. The English, after some effort, secured the privilege of building a factory at this port. But they later abandoned their factory and crept away in a small boat to Durgarazpatnam (otherwise known as Armagaon) situated about 35 miles to the north of Pulicat. This place was a miserable port and was too poor to supply the calico cloth which the English wanted for export to Europe. But it was the only safe shelter for the English at the time and here they built a small fort and mounted a few pieces of cannon upon it. But trade did not thrive and the miserable English traders planned to go back to Masulipatam under the protection of a Golden Firman which the Sultan of Golconda was kind enough to give them. But Masulipatam was in the throes of a famine just then and in spite of every assurance of protection, English trade did not thrive at that place.

    The English pitch upon the Site of Madras

    With Masulipatam unprosperous and Armagaon hopeless, the English traders anxiously looked out for a new site that would be more propitious for them. Mr.Francis Day, the future founder of Madras, who was then a Member of the Masulipatam Council and the Chief of the Armagaon Factory, made a voyage of exploration in 1637 down the coast as far as Pondicherry with a view to choose a site for a new settlement. At that time the Coromandel Coast was nominally under the Rajah of Chandragiri who was a descendant of the famous Rayas of Vijayanagar. Under the Rajah, local chiefs known as Nayaks, ruled over the different districts. One of these Nayaks had given permission to the Dutch to build a strong fort at Pulicat where they had grown to be powerful enough to deal on equal terms with the Nayaks of the neighborhood.

    Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak ruled all the coast country from Pulicat to the Portuguese settlement of San Thome now included within the City of Madras. He had his head-quarters at Wandiwash and his brother Ayyappa Nayak resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, and looked after the affairs of the coast. It was probably this Ayyappa Nayak that made overtures to Day, inviting him to choose a site in the territory of his brother. The offer looked good; and Day wrote to Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site and examine the possibilities of trade there. The results of his personal inspection were apparently favourable; and he wrote that the calicos woven at Madraspatnam which was the place offered by the Nayak for the site of the proposed factory were much cheaper than those at Armagaon. Day secured a Grant (copies of which endorsed by Cogan, the Chief of the Masulipatam Factory, are even now preserved) giving over to the English the village of Madraspatnam for a period of two years and empowering them to build a fort and castle at that place. The Grant is dated August 1639.

    The English Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with the action of Mr. Day and resolved that he should proved again to Madras and contact the Nayak until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam (in java) could be obtained for their action.

    The chief difficulty, as usual with the English in those days, was lack of money. At last, in February 1640, Day and Cogan accompanied by a few factors and writers, a garrison of about 25 European soldiers and a few other European artificers, besides a Hindu powder-maker by name Naga Battan, proceeded to Madras and started the English factory. They reached Madraspatnam on the 20th of February; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place.

    Extent of their First Settlement

    The extent of land transferred to the English under the Nayak’s Grant is not found specified anywhere. But it was the whole area contained within the traditional village limits of Madraspatnam. This nucleus area appears to have extended along the coast from a point a few hundred yards north of the mouth of the Cooum River, right up to a little beyond the northern end of the present Geroge Town. In the interior, the area included the island ground on the west and its western line ran along the present Cochrane’s Canal, then known as the North River, right up to the north-western corner of the present George Town. To this area, surrounding villages were added from time to time in the customary British fashion.

    In those days, the Cooum River which had a winding course through the villages of Chetput, Nungambakkam and Chintadripet, had, as it still had a common outlet to the sea along with the North River at some distance to the south of the limits of the Madraspatnam Village. The North River (or Elambore River as it was called in those days) flowed parallel to and a mile distant from the coast along the western side of Madraspatnam Village. At the site of the present General Hospital, the river took a sharp bend to the east and, when near the sea, it again took another bend to the south; and it then flowed on for about three-fourths of a mile parallel to the shore and joined the Cooum at its mouth. The two streams formed a wide and shallow backwater at their joint outlet. At the point where the North River bent east, there was only a narrow neck of land about 300 yards in length that separated it from the Cooum as it curved towards the sea. At this point a cut was made several years after the foundation of the City, probably with the object of equalising flood levels; and thus the Island ground was literally converted into an Island.

    The site of the Fort planned by the English settlers was on the bank of sand between the North River and the sea, just in the southern end in the village of Madraspatnam and three-fourths of a mile north of the river mouth.

    The Building of the Fort by Day and Cogan

    he Fort was planned nearly square, with a bastion at each corner and the Factory House was in the centre of the Fort and was built diagonally to the square so that each face of the house opened on the gorge of a bastion. The building of the Factory House was taken up on March 1st, 1640. A portion of the structure was presumably completed by St. George’s Day (23rd April) of that year and the name Fort St. George was consequently given to the Fort.

    The bastions were first built and erection of the curtain walls connecting them proceeded more slowly as funds permitted. The whole Fort took fourteen years to construct and was finished only in 1653. It measured about 100 yards by north to south and by 80 yards east to west. On its northern and southern sides buildings and streets sprang up and constituted what came to be known later as the White Town.

    Indian merchants and artificers were attracted to the settlement and encouraged to build houses therein under a promise of exemptions from import taxes for a period of thirty years. It is said that within the first year of the life of the settlement, there arose some seventy to eighty substantial houses to the north and south of the Fort while in the village of Madraspatnam nearly four hundred families of weavers had come to settle permanently.chennai directory

    Day had made himself personally responsible for payment of interest on the loans got for the building of the settlement. Charges of private trade were however brought against him and he was sent to England in 1641 to answer them. He successfully faced these charges and returned to the Coromandel Coast as Second-in-Council at Madras. Cogan had been meanwhile made the Agent of Madras. He remained in the settlement for more than three years during which time he nursed the Fort into some strength and the town into some measure of prosperity. He was also charged with extravagant expenditure on the fortifications and resolved in disgust to resign his position to Day and sail away. Day became his successor in the Agency in Madras but did not enjoy his position long. He also departed for England within a year of his assumption of the Agency (1644).

    Day had proposed and planned the settlement and secured the Grant of the Nayak for it. Cogan had been useful from the beginning and was mainly responsible for the erection of the Fort and for the colonization of the place. Both were taken to task by the Court of Directors of the English Company, Cogan for unauthorised expenditure and Day for private trading. The memory of neither is kept green in Madras whose foundations they helped to lay. “Neither Cogan nor Day is kept in memory by Statue, Portrait or Place name. Not even does the Secretariat Building in the Fort, the successor of the old Factory House, bear a tablet to commemorate the achievements of the joint Founders of Madras”.chennai directory

    The Names Madraspatnam and Chennapatnam

    We saw the Damarla Venkatapathy and his brother Ayyappa gave the English the grant of Madras. The Rajah of Chandragiri was Venkatapathy Rayalu. From this Rajah the English got a confirmation of the Nayak’s Grant. Venkatapathy was succeeded by his nephew Srirangarayalu in 1642. To the new Raya, Thomas Ivy, the successor of Day in the Agency of Madras, sent Factor Greenhill on a mission which resulted in the issue of a new Grant to the English (copies of this grant are available now). It is dated October-November 1645. It confirmed the Grant of the Raya’s predecessor and empowered the English to administer justice and gave them an additional piece of land known as the Narimedu (Jackal-ground) which lay to the west of the village of Madraspatnam. All these three grants, viz., of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, Kind Venkatapathy and his successor Srirangarayalu, were engraved on gold plates but none of them is now extant.

    In Srirangaraya’s Grant of 1645 the Town of Madras is expressly called “Srirangarayapatnam, My Town,” and a distinction is made between the town of Madraspatnam and the new town growing round the Fort which is expressly called Srirangarayapatnam. The first Grant of Damarly Venkatapathy Nayak makes mention of the village of Madraspatnam. Both Venkatapathy and his brother Ayyappa desired that the name Chennapatnam should be given to the new Fort and settlement of the English after their father ChennappaNayak. Srirangarya desired that the name Srirangarayapatnam should be given to the Fort and settlement of the English in the place of Chennapatnam. The fact that the family of Damarla Venkatapathy, son of Chennappa, was disgraced by Srirangaraya, probably explains the reason why the Raya offered his own name to be given to the settlement and declared that it was a mark of his special favour.chennai directory

    In all the records of the times a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing round the Fort. Thus we may say that the village of Madraspatnam existed under that name prior to the English settlement of 1639-40 and the site of Chennapatnam was that of modern Fort St.George. The original village of Madraspatnam lay to the north of the site of the Fort and within a few years of the founding of Fort St.George the new town which grew up round the Fort was commonly known to the Indians as Chennapatnam, either in deference to the wishes of Damarla Venkatapathy or because the site originally bore that name. The intervening space between the northern Madraspatnam and the Southern Chennapatnam came to be built over rapidly so that the two villages became virtually one town. The English preferred to call the two united towns by the name of Madraspatnam with which they had become familiar from the first while the Indians chose to give it the name of Chennapatnam. In course of time the exact original locations of Madraspatnam and Channapatnam came to be confused. Madras was regarded as the site of the Fort and Chennapatnam as the Indian town to the north.chennai directory

    Origin of the Name Madras

    The origin of the name Madraspatnam has long been a puzzle. The name Madras occurs in many forms like Maddaraspatnam, Madras Patnam, Madraspatnam, Madrapatnam, Madrazpatnam, etc. According to one version there was a village of fishermen on the site, the headman of which was a Christian named Madaresan who persuaded Day to call the settlement after his own name. But we know that the name was in use even before the English came on the scene. Otherwise writers have derived the name from the term Madrassa ( a college) and think that there might have been an old Muhammadan College at the place; or there might have been a Church of St.Mary (Madre de Deus) at Madras prior to 1640, probably founded by the Portuguese of San Thome which had been in existence from the previous century and the church might have given name to the village; or there was an Indian rules, Maddarazu, who might have been some local chief in the region in the past after whom the village might have been named Maddarazpatnam.chennai directory

    The Very Revd. Mgr. Teixeira, Bishop of Mylapore, has decently put forward a suggestion based on his discovery of some tombstone inscriptions that the name might well have been after Madras, a Portuguese family of the village and that the family gave their name to the place. Still another view is that Madras was so called because it produced a kind of calico cloth of the name. None of these seems to be very convincing, while the derivation of Madras from the Persian word Madrassa is somewhat fanciful. There is a curious resemblance between the names of the English Town of Madraspatnam, the southern Dutch Factory of Sadraspatnam at the mouth of the Palar river and the northern settlement of Durgarazpatnam (Armagaon).

    The First Years of Madras

    The growth of Madras in its first thirty years was all that could be desired. Very soon after the settlement was founded, a Hindu temple was constructed in the heart of the Indian village that grew up. It was dedicated to Chenna Kesava Perumal and built on part of the grounds of the present High Court. Thus the temple was coeval with the birth of the town. In 1646 and endowment was made to it by Naga Battan, the Company’s powder-maker; and two years later another endowment was made to it by Beri Timmana who is said to have assisted the English in building the settlement and who was employed as the Company’s broker and merchant. It is presumed that this Pagoda had twin shrines in it, dedicated to Vishnu (Chenna Kesava) and Siva (Chenna Mallesvara) even as its present day successor is. Besides these two Indians, we hear of Raghava Battan who was first living in the Portuguese settlement of San Thome and helped the English to get from the Nayak the site of Madras. A cowle (lease or grant in writing) was said to have been given to him by Cogan and Day appointing him the Kanakkupillai (Scrivener) of Madras in 1640 and it was later produced by one of his dependants in a claim that he put forward to the office.

    Within a few years after the English settled at Madras, the authority of the Rajah of Chandragiri disappeared. The Rajah himself was forced to flee to Mysore and the forces of the Sultan of Golconda came to occupy the region surrounding Madras. The Kingdom of Chandragiri was hemmed in one side by the advancing troops of Golconda and on the other by the forces of the Bijapur Sultan who invaded the Carnatic from the Mysore Plateau and occupied the coast between Jinji and Tanjore. Nawab Mir Jumla, who was the Prime Minister of Golconda at this time, played an important part in this conquest of the Carnatic. He was originally a famous diamond merchant and was said to be the richest subject in all India. He had in his service a number of European gunners and cannon-founders and well appreciated the advantages of European aid. The English at Madras lent him the services of their gunner and several of their best soldiers when he went to blockade San Thome in 1646. In return for this help he confirmed all the privileges that they had obtained from the previous Hindu rulers of the Country and also lent them a large sum of money free of interest.

    Thus the English contrived to maintain good terms with the Rajah of Chandragiri to the last and yet to preserve the friendship of the Mussalman, conqueror from the first, a characteristic worship of both the rising and the setting sun.chennai directory

    Early Stages of the City’s Growth

    In 1652 Fort St.George was created a Presidency and its Agent came to be known as President. In those early years the Indian town was governed by three chief officials who were hereditary, viz., the Adhikhari, who dispenses justice, the Kanakkupillai, who assisted the Adhikari, and the Padda Naick, i.e., the Chief Watchman who was the head of the Talaiyaris and who kept order in the streets, arrested thieves and evil-doers and brought them to trial. Many Indians were merchants of the Company and the contractors for the supply of cotton cloth that was needed for export and for the sale of the European goods of the Company. The seniors among them were termed the Company’s Chief Merchants; and the agents and brokers of individual English merchants came to be later on known as Dubashes.

    From time to time, factious fights rose between the right-hand and left-hand castes of the City. Such factions were much prevalent in the country round Conjeeveram. In Madras the Beri Chetties, artisans, Cil-mongers, weavers and leather workers were the chief elements in the left-hand faction, while the Vellalas, the Arya Vysias (Komatis), the Vannias and the Adi-Dravidas belonged to the right-hand division. The grounds of quarrel were mostly with reference to the particular routes that the marriage and funeral processions of these castes should take, and the symbols and the trappings that should adorn their processions and pandals on occasions of festivity; and they were as ready to fall out with each other on the smallest provocation ‘ as Orangemen and Ribbonmen were in Ireland or the Montague’s and Capulets in Verona, or the clans in Scotland.’chennai directory

    The earliest dispute between the castes seems to have occurred in Madras in 1652-53, which was settled by an award wherein the name of Chennapatnam first occurs in an official document. The result of this award was that the eastern half of the Hindu town came to be generally occupied by left-hand castes and the western half by the right-hand ones.

    For a long time the country round Madras was in a great turmoil on account of the rebellion of Mir Jumla against his Golconda master and also because of the general weakness of the Golconda Sultan who was finally destroyed by the Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb in 1687. During these troubled years, Madras was frequently threatened by the exactions of successive local chiefs who ruled over the Poonamalle region on behalf of the Muhammadans. The worst of them was Bala Rao who stopped the Indian traders coming to Madras, raised the customs duties they had to pay at the Great Mettah where there was a regular customs-house and thus increased the prices of grains and other provisions. On one occasion the Muslim troops entered the settlement and burnt some houses. Later, Madras had to encounter a regular siege for several months at the hands of Bala Rao and his colleague, Tupaki Krishnappa Naick. Fort St.George was reduced from the rank of a Presidency to an Agency, temporarily in 1655, owing to a fit of economy that seized the Directors of the Company at the time. However, it was restored to its Presidency status three years later; and this it has continued to enjoy ever since. The Dutch were envious of the growing prosperity of the City and both the Dutch and the Golconda Sultan had an eye on San Thome. On one occasion the English expected that San Thome would be ceded to them by the Portuguese instead of Bombay, for whose cession negotiations were then going on.

    Sir Edward Winter, Governor (1661-65), got a permanent agreement regarding the English right to Madras. Winter was a bold and bad man who imprisoned his successor in office, Fox-Croft, on the ground that the latter was of decidedly Puritanical and anti-Royalist tendencies and could be suspected of having made treasonable utterances against King Charles II. He was in enjoyment of his usurped authority for nearly three years and during all this time Fox-Croft languished in prison. Even when punishment finally came to him, he contrived to make his own terms and stayed on in Madras for a few more years after he was deposed. Fox-Croft, the unfortunate imprisoned Governor, was the first to he given the title of Governor of Fort St.George a title which has been transmitted to a long line of distinguished successors. The title came to be given by an accident, as it were. The Company’s letter constituting the Madras Agent and Council ‘Our Governor and Agent and Consul in Fort St. George’ and empowering them to execute judgment in all cases, civil and criminal, was occasioned by the difficulty that arose as to the jurisdiction of the Madras officials over capital cases. This difficulty was solved by the new title and ‘ to modern occupants of the gubernatorial chair it is probably unknown that they owe their designation to a Madras murder.’chennai directory

    San Thome

    Madras and San Thome were generally on friendly terms. The latter fell into the hands of the Sultan of Golconda in 1662 and was taken possession of by the French ten years later. But they were not to enjoy it for long. It once again went back into the hands of Golconda and the English urged the Sultan to demolish the fortifications of the place as they were afraid that the French might recover the Fort either by force or by purchase. One important consequence of the French surrender of San Thome was the withdrawal of Martin, the Captain of the French soldiers, with a few followers to Pondicherry, where he founded the famous settlement that was to have a glorious, but short-lived, prominence in the next century.chennai directory

    The fame of San Thome rests upon its close association with the Apostle St. Thomas, who is declared to have suffered martyrdom at St.Thomas’ Mount and to have been buried originally at San Thome, that it, in Old Mylapore, part of which now lies under the encroaching sea. There is not much doubt that there existed at the place a Christian colony from the early centuries of the Christian era. It was known to the Arab travellers and geographers of the ninth and tenth centuries as Betumah, that it, the house or Church of St. Thomas. And from this word was derived the name San Thome. To this Church it is said that King Alfred the Great of England sent some emissaries about 883 A.D. Subsequently, Persian merchants who were Nestorian Christians, established a Church of their own at the place, built a Chapel over the tomb of St. Thomas and a monastery on the top of St. Thomas’ Mount. The place was visited by Marco Polo, the famous Venetian traveller, who touched the Madras coast towards the close of the thirteenth century. But the town decayed later on; and its revival was the work of the Portuguese who settled therein in 1522. As the Portuguese were rebuilding the old Chapel, they stumbled on the grave of the Apostle, besides which they built a small church which has now grown into the San Thome Cathedral.

    The Luz Church situated a mile to the west of the Cathedral is associated with an ancient tradition, that some mariners saw a light beckoning to them from that place when they tossed about in a storm near the coast. Steering towards this guiding light, they landed safely, and following it came to the spot where the church is built. The church is thus dedicated to ‘Our Lady of Light’. But it was not built in 1516 as the inscription on its base claims but only a few decades later.

    St. Thomas Mount and Little Mountchennai directory

    At St. Thomas’ Mount the Portuguese came across the famous Bleeding Cross, that is, a Stone Cross bearing an Old Pehbir inscription, with some spots on it resembling, blood stains; and a church was erected at the place, the Stone Cross being built in the wall behind the Altars. The inscription is similar to that engraved round the Crosses found in some of the Syrian Christian churches on the Malabar Coast. In those days a beacon fire was lighted nightly on the Mount for the benefit of mariners. In the church itself, which is dedicated to our Lady of Expectation, there is a picture of the Holy Virgin and Child which is believed to be one of the seven portraits painted by St. Luke and brought by St. Thomas to India.

    Between St. Thomas’ Mount and Madras and a little to the east of the southern end of the Saidapet Bridge is the Little Mount or Chinnamalai. This contains a cave to which St. Thomas is said to have fled when he was pursued by his persecutors. A church was built in 1551 at this place by the Portuguese. There is pointed out here a cleft in the rock where St. Thomas caused a spring of fresh water to gush forth, by hitting the stone with his staff, and the multitude who came to hear his preach quenched their thirst therein. The water was believed to have had healing properties and the church itself is dedicated to Our Lady of Health. Both the Big and Little mounts are outside the limits of Madras City, But the Big and Little Mounts are outside the limits of Madras city. But they have been closely associated with Madras both in the past and in the present epoch.

    Mylapore

    Mylapore, a village adjacent to San Thome to its west, has always gone hand in hand with the latter and was included in its jurisdiction. It is a place of ancient importance and has long been famous as a Siva Shrine. It is closely associated with Thiruvalluvar, the great author of the Kural, and also with the activities of the Saiva Nayanar, the great Gnanasambandar. The temple of Sri Kapaleesvarar contains a sculpture depicting one of the miracles wrought by Gnanasambandar. There are bronze statues within the temple of the 63 Saiva Nayanmars, in whose honour a grand festival is conducted annually. Mylapore is also associated with one of the Vaishnavite Alvars. After the Portuguese town of San Thome came into being Mylapore was absorbed in it. When San Thome fell into the hands of the Mussalmans, a number of its rich Portuguese merchants settled in Madras. The English themselves endeavoured to get that place for a nominal rent from the Sultan of Golconda. After the latter’s kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Empire in 1687, the Mughal Governor of the Carnatic threatened to develop it at the expense of Madras, frequently visited and resided in it and built a rampart round the town. The place continued under the rule of the Mussalmans with very little trade and a decaying population till 1749 when it was taken possession of by the English in the name of their protégé, Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah.

    First Attempts at Conservancy

    The gradual growth of Madras, though interrupted from time to time, was steady and vigorous. It was when Governor Streynsham Master was in power (1678-81) that the first serious attempt was made at the conservancy of the streets. A scavenger was appointed who was empowered to collect a house-tax and to remove the dirt and filth of the town and draw up a roll of the houses. This post was held by a civil servant of high rank. Watchmen were appointed for going round the streets in the nights. Tavern-keepers, places of entertainments and others had to be licensed. The Indian inhabitants had long fought vigorously against tax saying that it was their privilege to be exempted from any taxation.chennai directory

    Master also framed rules for the better administration of justice. Two English official were appointed as Choultry Justices to administer justice to the Indian inhabitants and their number was increased subsequently. The Governor himself began to sit as a Judge thus forming an Appellate Court.

    St. Mary’s Church in the Fort

    It was also in Master’s time that the church of St. Mary within the Fort was built. The foundation was laid on Lady’s Day in 1678 and hence the Church was named St. Mary’s in honour of the Blessed Virgin. It was finished in 1680 and was consecrated on the 28th of October that year. It stands much the same as it was when built, except for the spire and the tower which were subsequently added. It is full of mementoes of men who have helped to make Madras history; and its narrow yard is literally paved with tombs of various ages and with inscriptions in several languages. The stones were removed from the stately tombs which were erected over the graves of dead Englishmen in the old English burying-place of the settlement which lay in the present Law College compound.

    The Vestry of the Church was organised at the same time and it continued to exist down to 1805. It conducted a Charity School which subsequently became the nucleus of the Male and Female Orphan Asylums. After Master’s time there was a reorganisation of the Police arrangements in the so-called Black Town which had grown up close to the White Town and which occupied the site of the present northern glacis of the Fort, part of the western glacis and the grounds of the Law College and the High Court. During the Governorship of Mr.Yale (1687-92) a Mayor and Corporation were instituted in the City by a Charter of the Company under permission from King James.chennai directorychennai directory,chennai directory,chennai directory,chennai director,chennai directory,vvchennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directoryvchennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directoryvv

    Acquisition of Suburban Villages

    It was in Yale’s time that the Mughul authority spread over the Carnatic. He was very anxious about the safety of Madras from Mughul injury. And he applied to the Nawab Zulfiker Khan, the Mughal General for the free Grant of the villages of Egmore, Purasawalkam and Thondiarpet. These villages were at first rented out and were directly taken over by Government in 1720. They were known in the English records of the time as the “Three Old Towns”. Triplicane was the earliest acquisition and came first into English occupation in 1668 though it was resumed a few years later by the Mussalmans. It was only in 1672 that Triplicane was definitely given over to the English for an annual rent of fifty pagodas. Including Triplicane these three villages were known as the ‘Four Old Towns’. Shortly afterwards, the English petitioned for permission to occupy five other villages in the vicinity composing of Tiruvatiyoor, Kathiwakam, Nungambakkam, Vyasarpady and Sathangadu. These places were given over by a Mughal firman in 1708 and they were hence forward known as the ‘Five New Towns’.

    Wedged in between Egmore and Purasawalkam which had been acquired by the English, were two small villages, viz., Periamet where the Mussalman authorities collected tolls, and Vepery, which were acquired by the English only in 1742; along with Vepery the Company got Perambore, Pudupakkam, Ernavore and Sadyan Kuppam together with a confirmation of the right of coining Arcot rupees and pagodas. San Thome and Mylapore continued to be under Mussalman rule till 1749 when Madras was restored to English after three years of occupation by the French who captured it in 1746. Soon after they got back Madras, the English contrived to occupy San Thome in the name of their new ally, Nawab Muhammad Ali who was opposed by Chanda Saheb, the ally and champion of the French.

    Governor Thomas Pitt

    From the time of Governor Yale down to the outbreak of war with the French in 1746, the growth of Madras was continuous and was seen not only by the expansion of its trade and wealth but also in the steady political power of the English. Of the Governors of the period the most famous was Thomas Pitt who was originally a bold interloper and in the opinion of the Directors, a desperate fellow. Pitt was Governor for the unusually long term of 11 years-1698-1709- and his term of office proved to be the ‘Golden Age’ of Madras. He resisted the demands of the Mughal Nawab, successively acquired the five new villages and built fortified walls round the Old Black Town. It was in his time that the Island ground was embanked, drained and improved. He also provided for an accurate survey of the City with a view to the allocation of definite streets and quarters for the right and left-hand factions. Copies of his map and plan are now available. They show us that the Old Black Town was more than a mile and a half in circumference and various gates in its walls led into the suburbs of Muthialpettah to the north and Peddunaicken-pettah to the west. A canal ran along the present Broadway which separated Black Town and Muthialpettah from Peddunaickenpettah.

    Weavers’ Villages-Collettpettah and Chintadripettah

    As trade increased the number of weavers and painters had steadily to be increased. Governor Collett (1717-20) founded a new pettah near Tiruvottiyur which was called, as the inhabitants desired, after him as Collettpettah. The inhabitants were mostly weavers and painters of cloth which the Company required for export to Europe. The present suburb if Washermanpet lying to the north of George Town grew up about the same time. The Company had in their employment a large number of washers, bleachers and painters of cloth which came from the weavers’ looms. A large open space and plenty of good water were necessary for their work. They were first settled in Peddunaickenpettah to the north; but they complained that the water of the river was not pure. They were subsequently removed to the north of the Black Town where the ground was rich in fresh springs. The place where they settled was, therefore, known as Washerman Town and its present appellation of Washermanpet is apt, as in the case of Collettpettah, to convey a wrong meaning as to its origin. The growth of these suburbs indicates a period of great prosperity in the cotton trade which was the chief investment of the Company. The Dubashes and chief merchants of the Company engaged in the supply of cotton goods to the Company rose to great prosperity. One of them be name Alangatha Pillai founded and built the Ekambareswarar Temple, and another of them, Sunkurama had a large garden in the bend of the Cooum river south of Periamet which was taken over in 1735 for a new weavers’ village known as Chintadripettah. By that time Sunkurama had fallen into disgrace and was succeeded by his colleague Thambu Chetty as the chief merchant. Government resolved in October 1734 to erect a weaving town in the site of Sunkurama’s garden and to permit only spinners, weavers, washers, painters and the necessary attendants of the temple to settle in the village. A cowl was granted on these terms and Bemala Audiappa Narayana helped in the peopling of the village, which grew to contain nearly two hundred and fifty families within two years after its foundation.

    The Carnatic fell into confusion after 1740 when the Mahrattas invaded it. Several disputed successions to the Nawabship occurred, out of which emerged Anwaruddin Khan. During all these years the English were seriously engaged in strengthening the Fort, particularly its western walls. The Fort as it had grown up by now enclosed the houses of the White Town, but was much smaller than the present Fort. On the north the houses of the Old Black Town encroached almost up to the very wall, the river on the west ran very much more to the east than it does now. In 1743 plans were prepared for enlarging the Fort on the west side and for diverting the course of the river further west. This diversion was not, however, immediately carried out.

    French Occupation of the City and its Results

    The French capture of Madras by Labourdonnais in 1746 is a great event in the history of the City. The French were in occupation of the City for three years till August 1749. They planned to retain it permanently. They demolished the Indian houses of Old Black Town which adjoined the north wall of the Fort and formed a glacis with the debris. The southern portion of the Old Black Town was consequently destroyed. Soon after Madras came back into English possession, the Company began plans for remodeling and strengthening the Fort. The river on the west side was diverted to its present course, and its old bed was built up and included in the Fort. The west wall was strengthened with bastions which were named after the Governor George Pigot, Major Lawrence and Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah. The temple of Chennakesavaperumal which stood in Old Black Town, was also demolished and compensation was given by Government and a new site was offered in China Bazaar where Manali Muthukrishna Mudaliar, the Dubash of Governor Pigot, built the new temple now known as the Town temple. He became the first warden of this temple whose management has continued to remain in his family. Count Lally’s siege of Madras (December 1758 to February 1759) the next crisis in the History of the City was successfully resisted by the English; but they abandoned Old Black Town and the suburbs which were occupied by the French; while the Fort itself was a sand wreck after the siege. Black Town was ruthlessly plundered by the enemy who also burnt the village of Chepauk to the south of the mouth of the Cooum and lying between the Island and Triplicane.

    Building of the Black Town Walls

    After the siege, the Directors resolved that the Fort should be rebuilt upon the most modern plan. Hyder Ali of Mysore was growing powerful at the time. In 1767 he made an expedition to the neighbourhood of Madras, plundered San Thome and burnt several villages in the neighbourhood. Two years later, he again appeared before Madras with a formidable cavalry force. Hyder’s raids threw the inhabitants into a state of panic; and the result was the erection of permanent walls to protect the New Black Town, as Muthialpettah and Peddunaickenpettah together came to be called, after the demolition of the Old Black Town. The rampart walls that were constructed covered the northern and western fronts of modern George Town and ran a course of 3½ miles, being equipped with bastions and flanking works at intervals. The north wall presented a slight convex front towards Tondiarpet. The west wall ran on close to the North River (Cochrane Canal). On the outer side of the walls the ground was cleared for a width of six hundred yards and afforded a field for fire. These spaces were known as Esplanades. The southern part of the Western Esplanade was converted in the middle of the nineteenth century into the People’s Park, and the northern part into Salt Cotaurs. The walls had numerous gates, of which the one known as Elephant Gate still had its name preserved for the site on which it stood. Wall Tax Road also is reminiscent of those times. It was designed to have a good road running on the side of the western rampart and its cost was met be means of a tax which was imposed on the house-holders nearby. But the tax was never collected through an officer, known as the Collector of Town Wall Tax, was appointed for the purpose. It is also said that arches in the western wall were occupied by Indians who paid a rent or tax and hence arose the name of Wall Tax Road which runs for two miles and was close to the western wall. Debtor-prisoners were confined in the bastions in the north-west angle of the wall, which criminals were put in another bastion in the northern wall; and even to-day the street next to the demolished north wall, of which some remnants remain in the compound of the Royapuram Hospital is called the Old Jail Street. The walls were pulled down about the middle of the nineteenth century when swords had to be turned into ploughshares. The remnants of its bastions and curtains that remain on the north indicate how substantially the construction work was made. The walls were finished about 1772.

    Final Formation of the Fort

    About the same time the work of remodeling the Fort was also finished. Many of the private inhabitants who lived within it were compelled to sell their houses, and barracks for British troops were built on their sites. The Fort in its enlarged shape was completed in 1783 when Lord Macartney was Governor. This enlarged Fort stands perfect to-day as a typical example of the ideal fortress of the eighteenth century. It is the last of the four phases of growth which was settlement has passed through. It began as a small castle of Cogan and Day which was enclosed in a square of bastioned walls. In the next stage the White Town inhabited by English, Portuguese and Armenian merchants which grew round the nucleus came to be protected by walls. This survived almost up to the date of French Capture of Madras in 1746. The filling up of the old bed of the North River, the extension of the west front of the Fort and the consequent increase in its area formed from third stage. The last stage was completed in 1783 when the outer walls were totally rebuilt and provided with ample out-works, glacis, reveling and lunettes.

    It was in this epoch also that most of the buildings and barracks in the western portion of the Fort were erected. The Palace Street, so called because Nawab Wallajaj first planned to have a place erected for himself in that street, the Arsenal, the Hanover square and the Western Barracks were all constructed about this time. The streets in the eastern side of the Fort were also altered. Lord Pigot who was twice Governor of Madras, distinguished himself by strengthening the fortifications and defending it successfully against Lally. The weakness of his successors led to his reappointment for a second time as Governor. But he quarreled violently with his colleagues, was imprisoned by them and died in confinement. He was buried in a nameless grave in St. Mary’s Church in the Fort.

    Modern George Town comes into Shape

    In the time of Governor Macartney (1781-85) Black Town assumed the shape that it now has. There was a low-lying region between Muthialpettah and Peddunaickenpettah along which ran a drainage channel. This channel was filled up and the waste land on both its sides were raised; and gradually houses came to be built over the whole area. The main north and south street which traverses this area known as Popham’s Broadway is commemorative of the efforts of Mr.Popham who reclaimed all this region. It was also now that the inhabitants of Peddunaickenpettah living in the south and south-east portions of it were removed elsewhere as their houses were considered to be dangerously near the Fort. The ground which was somewhat elevated was cleared and was converted into an Esplanade of the Fort and is now occupied by the Ordnance Lines. The removal of these houses, accounts for the present curiously broken outline of Peddunaickenpettah on its south-east side and for the abrupt termination of some of its north and south streets.

    Mr. Popham also submitted a plan for the establishment of a regular police force for Madras and for the building of direct and cross drains in every street. He also advocated measures for the naming and lighting of streets, for the regular registration of births and deaths and for the licensing of liquor, arrack and toddy shops. A Board of Police assisted by a Kotwal was subsequently formed. The Kotwal was to be the officer of the markets under the Superintendent of Police. For long, there was difficulty about the collecting of quit rent and scavenger’s duty and it was held that the Company had no power to impose these taxes. A Parliamentary Act of 1792 finally gave the Company the power to levy municipal taxes in the City and it was resolved to order an assessment of five per cent to be collected from the inhabitants on the estimated annual rents of the houses. It was now that the Town cleaning duties were entrusted to the Officers known as Surveyors and Collectors, under whom conservancy work was to be done by contract.


    FAIRS AND FESTIVALS

    Fairs and festivals are held in the different parts of the city throughout the year. The festivals associated with Hindu temple are more than 500 in a year.  Apart  from  the traditional  fairs  and  festivals,  modern  fairs  such  as exhibitions and national festivals like Independence day and Republic day  are  celebrated  in the city. following are some of the  important  festivals celebrated in the city which are attended by thousands of devotees from far  and near.

    • The   Brahmotsavam  (including the Arupathumoovar festival)  of  Kapaleeswarar temple located in Mylapore is celebrated in the Tamil month of Panguni (March-April)  and  it lasts for ten days. A big fair is held near  the  temple.  The floating festival held in January – February in Mylapore is also very popular.

    • Of all the festivals celebrated in the Parthasarathy temple in Triplicane, the most  important  is  the Vaikunta  Ekadari  observed  (December-January).  

    • The Brahmothsavam  in the month of Chithirai is celebrated for ten days.  The  car festivals  falls  on  the  seventh days and is attended  by  more  than  50000 devotees.  

    • The  Kirthigai  (Karthigai asterism) day every month is  a  day  of festival  in  the  Vada  Palani Andavar temple  in  Kodambakkam.  

    • The   annual festivals are Skanda Sashti in Ayppari month and Uthiram in Panguni month. the floating  festivals  during  the Panguni Uthiram is also  well  attended.  

    • The Kandaswami  temple  in  Sowcarpet  celebrate twenty festivals  in  a  year.  

    • The Jathirai  festival  in  Adhi Mottaiamman temple attracts  a  large  number  of crowds.  

    • Among  the several festival celebrated by  the  Siva-Vishnu  temples important  ones  are  Navarathri, Sivarathri, Vaikunta  Ekadasi  and  Sri  Ram Navami.

    • The  Muslim festivals also attract crowds and give rise to fairs in the  city.  The  Ramzan, Bakrid and Muharram  are the important festivals, which is observed  by  thousands ofdevout Muslims in various parts of the city.

    • The Easter, Christmas and the New year  are  marked  by impressive festivities in the  protestant  and  catholic churches  in the city like St. Thomas and the Cathedral  Church in Santhome.

Chennadirectory/chennai/chennai directory/chennai business directory/chennai directory online /online busniess directory /online chennai directory /internet chennai directory/panindiamart chennia directory /business in chennai directory online /chennai directorychennai directorychennai directory ,chennai directory,chennai directorychennai,chennai Directory,chennai Directory,chennai Directory,chennai Directory,chennai Directory,chennai Directory,chennai Directory,chennai Directory,

IMPORTANT HEALTH TIPS for Indians must know

 

 

TO PREVENT STROKE DRINK TEA!

Prevent buildup of fatty deposits on artery walls with regular doses of tea. (actually, tea suppresses my appetite and keeps the pounds from invading….Green tea is great for our immune system)!

INSOMNIA (CAN’T SLEEP?) HONEY!

Use honey as a tranquilizer and sedative.

ASTHMA? EAT ONIONS!!!!

Eating onions helps ease constriction of bronchial tubes. (when I was young, my mother would make onion packs to place on our chest, helped the respiratory ailments and actually made us breathe better).

ARTHRITIS? EAT FISH, TOO!!

Salmon, tuna, mackerel and sardines actually prevent arthritis. (fish has omega oils, good for our immune system)

UPSET STOMACH? BANANAS – GINGER!!!!!

Bananas will settle an upset stomach.
Ginger will cure morning sickness and nausea.

BLADDER INFECTION? DRINK CRANBERRY JUICE!!!!

High-acid cranberry juice controls harmful bacteria.

BONE PROBLEMS? EAT PINEAPPLE!!!

Bone fractures and osteoporosis can be prevented by the manganese in pineapple.

PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME? EAT CORNFLAKES!!!!

Women can ward off the effects of PMS with cornflakes, which help reduce depression, anxiety and fatigue.

MEMORY PROBLEMS? EAT OYSTERS!

Oysters help improve your mental functioning by supplying much-needed zinc.

COLDS? EAT GARLIC!

Clear up that stuffy head with garlic. (remember, garlic lowers cholesterol, too.)

COUGHING? USE RED PEPPERS!!

A substance similar to that found in the cough syrups is found in hot red pepper. Use red (cayenne) pepper with caution-it can irritate your tummy.

BREAST CANCER? EAT Wheat, bran and cabbage

Helps to maintain estrogen at healthy levels.

LUNG CANCER? EAT DARK GREEN AND ORANGE AND VEGGIES!!!

A good antidote is beta carotene, a form of Vitamin A found in dark green and orange vegetables.

ULCERS? EAT CABBAGE ALSO!!!

Cabbage contains chemicals that help heal both gastric and duodenal ulcers.

DIARRHEA? EAT APPLES!

Grate an apple with its skin, let it turn brown and eat it to cure this condition. (Bananas are good for this ailment)

CLOGGED ARTERIES? EAT AVOCADO!

Mono unsaturated fat in avocados lowers cholesterol.

HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE? EAT CELERY AND OLIVE OIL!!!

Olive oil has been shown to lower blood pressure.
Celery contains a chemical that lowers pressure too.

BLOOD SUGAR IMBALANCE? EAT BROCCOLI AND PEANUTS!!!
The chromium in broccoli and peanuts helps regulate insulin and blood sugar.

HEADACHE? EAT FISH!
Eat plenty of fish — fish oil helps prevent headaches.
So does ginger, which reduces inflammation and pain.

HAY FEVER? EAT YOGURT!
Eat lots of yogurt before pollen season.
Also-eat honey from your area (local region) daily.

We all think eating fruits means just buying fruits, cutting it and just popping it into our mouths. It’s not as easy as you think. It’s important to know how and when to eat.
What is the correct way of eating fruits?
IT MEANS NOT EATING FRUITS AFTER YOUR MEALS! – FRUITS SHOULD BE EATEN ON AN EMPTY STOMACH. If you eat fruit on an empty stomach, it will play a major role to detoxify your system, supplying you with a great deal of energy for weight loss and other life activities.
FRUIT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FOOD – Let’s say you eat two slices of bread and then a slice of fruit. The slice of fruit is ready to go straight through the stomach into the intestines, but it is prevented from doing so.
In the meantime the whole meal rots and ferments and turns to acid. The minute the fruit comes into contact with the food in the stomach and digestive juices, the entire mass of food begins to spoil.
So please eat your fruits on an empty stomach or before your meals! You have heard people complaining – every time I eat water-melon I burp, when I eat durian (fruit from Asia with a foul smell yet delicious flavor) my stomach bloats up, when I eat a banana I feel like running to the toilet etc… – actually all this will not arise if you eat the fruit on an empty stomach. The fruit mixes with the putrefying other food and produces gas and hence you will bloat!
Graying hair, balding, nervous outburst, and dark circles under the eyes all these will not happen if you take fruits on an empty stomach.
There is no such thing as some fruits, like orange and lemon are acidic, because all fruits become alkaline in our body, according to Dr. Herbert Shelton who did research on this matter. If you have mastered the correct way of eating fruits, you have the Secret of beauty, longevity, health, energy, happiness and normal weight.
When you need to drink fruit juice – drink only fresh fruit juice, NOT from the cans. Don’t even drink juice that has been heated up. Don’t eat cooked fruits because you don’t get the nutrients at all. You only get to taste. Cooking destroys all the vitamins.
But eating a whole fruit is better than drinking the juice. If you should drink the juice, drink it mouthful by mouthful slowly, because you must let it mix with your saliva before swallowing it.
You can go on a 3-day fruit fast to cleanse your body. Just eat fruits and drink fruit juice throughout the 3 days and you will be surprised when your friends tell you how radiant you look!
Kiwi: Tiny but mighty. This is a good source of potassium, magnesium, Vitamin E &fiber. It’s Vitamin C content is twice that of an orange.
Apple: An apple a day keeps the doctor away? Although an apple has a low Vitamin C content, it has antioxidants & flavonoids which enhances the activity of Vitamin C thereby helping to lower the risks of colon cancer, heart attack & stroke.
Strawberry: Protective fruit. Strawberries have the highest total antioxidant power among major fruits &protects the body from cancer causing, blood vessels clogging free radicals. (Actually, any berry is good for you.. they’re high in anti-oxidants and they actually keep us young………blueberries are the best and very versatile in the health field……..they get rid of all the free-radicals that invade our bodies)
Orange: Sweetest medicine. Taking 2 – 4 oranges a day may help keep colds away, lower cholesterol, prevent & dissolve kidney stones as well as lessen the risk of colon cancer.
Watermelon: Coolest Thirst Quencher. Composed of 92% water, it is also packed with a giant dose of glutathione which helps boost our immune system. They are also a key source of lycopene – the cancer fighting oxidant. Other nutrients found in watermelon are Vitamin C &Potassium. (watermelon also has natural substances [natural SPF sources] that keep our skin healthy, protecting our skin from those darn suv rays)
Guava &Papaya: Top awards for Vitamin C. They are the clear winners for their high Vitamin C content. Guava is also rich in fiber which helps prevent constipation.
Papaya is rich in carotene, this is good for your eyes. (also good for gas and indigestion)
Tomatoes: are very good as a preventative measure for men, keeps those prostrate problems from invading their bodies.

Carrot + Ginger + Apple – Boost and cleanse our system.

Apple + Cucumber + Celery – Prevent cancer, reduce cholesterol, and improve stomach upset and headache.
Tomato + Carrot + Apple – Improve skin complexion and bad breath
Bitter gourd + Apple + Milk – Avoid bad breath and reduce internal body heat.
Orange + Ginger + Cucumber – Improve Skin texture and moisture and reduce body heat.
Pineapple + Apple + Watermelon – To dispel excess salts, nourishes the bladder and kidney.
Apple + Cucumber + Kiwi – To improve skin complexion.
Pear & Banana – regulates sugar content.
Honeydew + Grape + Watermelon + Milk – Rich in vitamin C + Vitamin B2 that increase cell activity and strengthen body immunity.
Papaya + Pineapple + Milk – Rich in vitamin C, E, Iron. Improve skin complexion and metabolism.
Banana + Pineapple + Milk – Rich in vitamin with nutritious and prevent constipation.

catering colleges in Madurai

 

Catering colleges in Madurai

catering colleges in Madurai

Annai Fatimaa Institute of Catering & Hotel Administration 

Fathima Nagar, Alampatty,Thirumangalam, Madurai – 625 706.

Tel: +91 4549 284528, 284794,Bethel Nagar, Opp. to Aparna Towers,Bye-Pass Road, Madurai – 625 016.Tel +91 452 2380326, 2383321

ALFAA Institute of Hotel Management catering Technology

No.63, Alagar Kovil Main Road,Poigaikaraipatti,

Madurai – 625301,Tel: +91 452 6571474, 9843966366

Email: alfaa6@gmail.com,URL: www.alfaacollege.com

N.A.S Catering catering colleges in Madurai

& Hotel Management College,K.Othapatti, Karupaiurani Post,

Madurai – 625 020.,Tel: +91 452 2094554, 3194554

Mobile: +91 9597766556,Students placed internationally

in UK, Australia, Dubai, Saudi, Kuwait,Oman, Malaysia and Singapore

Recognised by,Central Govt. of India and State Govt. of Tamilnadu

and Collaboration with Universities

– M.B.A. Hotel Management

– M.Sc. Hotel Management & Catering Technology

– B.Sc. Hotel Management & Catering Technology

– Diploma In Hotel Management & Catering

One Year Diploma Course in

Food Production

House Keeping Management

Food Beverage Service

Front Office Management

Oriental Institute of Catering Technology

& Hotel Management

114-C, Uthangudi,

Near Maattuthavani Busstand-Ring Road,

Madurai – 625 107.Tel: +91 452 2422446, 447, 448

catering colleges in Madurai offers below courses

– B.Sc. Catering and Hotel Administration

– P.G.Diploma in Hotel Food Service Management

– P.G.Diploma in Hotel Accommodation Management

One Year Courses

– Bakery and Confectionary

– Food and Beverage Production

– Food Production

– Front Office and Hotel Operational Management

– House Keeping Management

catering colleges in Madurai will let you know the key basis of

The global contract catering market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4% from 2016-2021, according to recent industry analysis conducted by Azoth Analytics. register  your college here click 

The Global Market Landscape

Just how big is this market? The contract catering market encompasses a wide variety of sectors — such as businesses, schools, hospitals, senior care centers, military institutions, athletic facilities, and more.

The global market remains fragmented, and opportunities vary by region. North America is a relatively saturated market, but the APAC region has significant room for growth, especially in the Indian and Japanese markets.

Top contract catering companies include Compass Group, Elior Group, Aramark, Sodexo, Baxterstorey, MITIE Catering Services, and Ch&Co Catering.

 

As hospital patients, seniors, and busy employees seek a higher quality of life, organizations are facing new pressures to provide more balanced diets and personalized menus. Consequently, caterers are increasingly focused on health and well-being.

 

ranges the delivery, preparation and presentation of food for clients. If you’ve ever attended a bridal shower, fund raiser, rehearsal dinner, wedding reception or a bar mitzvah that had beautifully prepared and presented food, chances are that event was catered. Their responsibilities include not only the food and drinks, but the decorations, tables, chairs, music and lighting. Catering is one of the fastest growing careers in the culinary arts field.

A catering business can be wildly successful, enjoyable and fulfilling. In this business, you’re able to please clients while indulging your love of food and people. If you’re such a person and have been thinking about starting your own business, catering is for you. You’ll have flexibility and freedom, and be able to attend lavish parties and events. If you love food and love making sure that clients get exactly what they asked for, then choose to start a catering business.catering colleges in Madurai will teach you the above in more detail catering colleges in Madurai will ellaborate it in detail

You Love Food
You might be one of those people who loves to savor a good meal, or you like to experiment with different ingredients, techniques and types of cuisine in your own kitchen. Maybe you just love to cook for your friends and see the enjoyment in their faces as they dig into another of your creations. Those who start catering businesses simply love food. They take pride in their work and love to have people sample their food. If you want to start a catering business, a love of food is first and foremost. Think about your time in the kitchen. Do you love to be there, or do you just tolerate it? A deep love of cooking is vital in starting a catering business.
You Love People
Catering is not the type of business for a wallflower. As a caterer, you are front and center; meeting with clients, working with party planners and encouraging clients. You’ll often need to socialize with clients, especially when serving at their events. If you’re someone who loves to talk and socialize, it will greatly help you in your catering career. Not being afraid to step in when an employee needs help or hasn’t performed well will keep your business running smoothly. Think about your social life. Do you love to meet new people and talk about your interests? If so, a catering business would be a good idea.
What does a Caterer do?
There are three main types of caterers which include:
Mobile Caterers catering colleges in Madurai
Hotel/Restaurant Caterers
Private Caterers/catering colleges in Madurai
Caterers of each type meet a variety of needs for their clients. Note that in some cases, dietary and religious needs may play a part in the event being catered and need to be carefully observed.
Mobile Caterers
– will often be found at a fair, a street corner, a food and drink trailer at a construction site, in a shopping mall kiosk or food court, and sometimes in the lobbies of some businesses. These types of caterers offer pre-packaged items ranging from sandwiches to salads and may even deliver meals for business clientele too busy to leave their office for lunch.
Hotel/Restaurant Caterers
– are often liaisons between the client and the kitchen staff for planning an event. Their responsibilities include menu preparation, banquet arrangement, table set-up, delivery of decorations, as well as arranging for extra service personnel as needed.
Private Caterers
– own their own businesses, contracting vendors as needed. These caterers are often hired for wedding receptions, birthday parties, business and personal anniversaries, business holiday events, retirement parties, as well as many other events. They are responsible for all aspects of the occasion including menus, plate and dinnerware rentals, and arranging for the appropriate wait staff. They are often responsible for arranging a clean-up crew to come in after the event has ended.
Find your perfect career
Would you make a good caterer? Sokanu’s free assessment reveals how compatible you are with a career across 5 dimensions!
69% MATCH?Take the free career test
What is the workplace of a Caterer like?
A caterer can work in a variety of locations, both indoors and outdoors. Some examples are construction sites, business lobbies, hotels, banquet and wedding receptions, and people’s private homes.

Are you hungry for a challenge?

If you’re passionate about food and work best as part of a team in a fast-paced environment, a job in the catering industry could be for you. Not sure where to start? Don’t worry, we’ve got you covered.
Here are some careers to consider in the catering industry and some of our top tips to help you get there:
Dietitian
What they do: Use their expert knowledge on health and nutrition to give people advice on making good choices when it comes to their diets. They also assess and treat a host of medical problems that are related to nutrition.
What you need: To be fascinated by food, health and nutrition. You will also need to be good at explaining complicated issues to those with no scientific experience, and be able to get your point across in the most tactful way. To become a Dietitian you will generally need a specific qualification related to the industry, with a degree being preferable for most employers.
What you can earn: Entry level is around £22,000, but can reach somewhere closer to the £40,000 mark once fully qualified and experienced.
Perfect for: People who see food scientifically.
Our advice: If you’re interested in science and are considering becoming a Dietitian, taking a qualification specific to the industry is a great way to see if it’s the right career move for you. A Nutrition Advisor Foundation course, for example, could be the perfect way to build a career in the industry.
 How to become a Dietitian
 View all Dietitian jobs
Head Chef
What they do: They’re in charge of the entire kitchen, taking control of everything from food orders and stock control through to managing staff, preparing new menus and producing new dishes to add to a restaurant’s repertoire.
What you need: Aside from excellent cooking skills, to be a successful Head Chef you will need to lead by example. Strong communication skills, drive and self-motivation are essential, as is the ability to delegate tasks effectively. A degree is not necessary.
What you can earn: Around £30,000, although this will vary depending on location and size of restaurant (not to mention your reputation).
Perfect for: People who like to be in control.
Our advice: You will need an extensive level of kitchen experience in order to become a Head Chef, particularly at Sous Chef level. Wherever possible, volunteer to help with some of the lower-level management responsibilities your Head Chef undertakes, ordering and inventories for example. That way you’ll have some vital experience you’ll need to become a Head Chef to add to your CV.
How to become a Chef
View all Head Chef jobs
Kitchen Porter
What they do: Carry out most of the basic tasks which are essential for the smooth running of a kitchen. Typical duties for a Porter include washing up, cleaning kitchen appliances, washing work surfaces, unloading deliveries and, in some cases, even basic food preparation.
What you need: The ability to work quickly and efficiently as part of a team, not to mention the capability to work under your own initiative. This is an entry level position in the catering industry, and therefore experience and qualifications are generally not necessary.
What you can earn: Kitchen Porters will earn between £12,000 and £14,000, although this may be higher if working in a busier restaurant.
Perfect for: People who want to break into the catering industry.
Our advice: It’s hard work being a Porter, but it often pays dividends in the long run. Not only is it a great way to remain flexible and earn some supplementary cash, it will allow you to gain essential experience in the kitchen environment, and can often lead on to more culinary focussed careers as a result.
How to become a Kitchen Porter
View all Kitchen Porter jobs
Restaurant Manager
What they do: Manage all aspects of a restaurant. Typical duties of a Restaurant Manager include organising bookings, overseeing and recruiting staff, dealing with complaints, making sure the premises adheres to health and safety regulations, maintaining budgets and looking after the financial state of the business.
What you need: Excellent interpersonal and customer service skills and the ability to manage a large number of staff efficiently and effectively. A degree may not be necessary, although specific qualifications will help get you started.
What you can earn: Initial salary may start at around £20,000, but successful Restaurant Managers will go on to earn £35,000+.
Perfect for: People who are business minded and want to work in the catering industry.
Our advice: To be successful as a Restaurant Manager, you will need to know the business inside out. For this reason, try and avoid job hopping if you’re looking to move into this role. Having fewer front-of-house jobs, but working your way up through the company, will generally stand you in good stead when it comes to other applications.
How to become a Restaurant Manager
View all Restaurant Manager jobs
Sous Chef
What they do: A Sous Chef is second in command to a Head Chef, in charge of the more practical elements of food preparation, rather than the more business-led responsibilities of their boss. It’s their job to help oversee all kitchen duties, supervising the preparation and cooking of food and ensuring the smooth day-to-day running of the kitchen.
What you need: First and foremost, excellent food preparation skills. The kitchen is a fast-paced, stressful environment, so the ability to keep calm under pressure is essential. Efficiency and the ability to prioritise tasks are similarly invaluable. A degree is generally not a pre-requisite, although a certain level of experience will be necessary to become a Sous Chef.
What you can earn: Starting salary will be around the £20,000 mark, rising to around £28,000 and above for a Senior Sous Chef.
Perfect for: People who are passionate about food.
Our advice: As with Head Chefs, to become a Sous Chef you will need to have a few years of experience in other kitchen roles. If possible, try and spend some time working at every position available to you. Not only will this give you a better understanding of other areas, it will also make it easier to supervise staff when you know the roles inside out.
How to become a Sous Chef
View all Sous Chef jobs
Waiting/Bar Staff
What they do: Serve food or drinks at restaurants, bars, cafés, hotels, and a number of other establishments. A number of waiting and bar staff also work at big events, serving customers at festivals, trade shows and sporting or music events, for example.
What you need: A friendly and welcoming demeanour, an outgoing personality and the ability to remember a variety of orders under pressure. Patience (when dealing with customers) will also be a virtue.
What you can earn: If full-time and permanent, salary can range from anywhere between £14,000 and £20,000 for an entry level position. However, many choose to work in a part-time capacity, and hourly rates will vary depending on where you work. Lucrative tips are also a potential perk in this position.
Perfect for: People people.
Our advice: In most cases, starting out in entry level positions will require little in the way of pre-requisites. However, they are often competitive roles to go for. To help set you apart when sending your application, make sure to highlight some of the key skills needed to be successful in these positions (confidence, outgoing personality, ability to multi-task etc.), and give examples of times you’ve demonstrated them effectively.
How to become a Waiter
View all Waiting & Bar Staff jobs
Here are some of our top tips for finding a job in the catering industry:
Be practical – Don’t be afraid to start at the bottom. It’s not unheard of for Kitchen Porters to go on to be Chef de Partie’s in a matter of years.
Demonstrate your skills – Pick out the most relevant attributes from the job description and tailor your CV to emphasise them.
Focus – Where do you want your career to take you? ‘I want to work in catering’ will not give you the direction you need to succeed.
Make sure you’re up-to-date – Keep an eye on the latest developments in the food industry and (for chefs) try and incorporate any new trends into your own dishes.
Start learning – If you need an extra qualification to back up your soft skills, take a course to help take you to the next level.
Learn by doing – In this industry, experience is everything. Sign up for an internship or voluntary/work-experience position and learn the ropes. With the right mentor, it may even lead to something more permanent.catering colleges in Madurai will let you know everything /catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/catering colleges in Madurai/

Register online! MSME DIRECTORY today

Register online! MSME DIRECTORY today

Link Building Directories For SEO

When you finally create your website for your business, it’s important to establish yourself on the internet. You can do this through social media, emails and SEO optimisation. All these ways will direct traffic to your website, help in creating awareness and increasing sales. Listing your website on online directories go a long way in helping improve your presence on the web.
It is not that internet users will conduct searches on these directories (though they may), but it will be counted by search engines. You can boost your SEO rank by improving your presence on the internet. Many search engines consider the presence of your brand name across the web. Think of these directories as getting online citations which help support your website.
In addition, web directories are fantastic places to come across backlinks to help with your link building activities. Registering in such web directories is more of an off-page SEO tactic, but very effective.
you can also contact us @7305777703 for Seo and all digital marketing related operations if you want to market your product or service through digital marketing platfor digitaltout.com is  one of best way to market by availing a plan in  digitaltout.com, panindiamart has become one of the most valuable directory in india has made remarkable reach all over india and has free listings of more than huge numbers, it has more kewords in operational  associated with its digital marketing function, digitaltout will definately derive the nth exponenet of your business if you want to derive the same

vacancies of 3235 posts in different cadres to be filled …………

 

vacancies of 3235 posts in different cadres to be filled …………

During the year 2018, TNPSC (Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission) plans to fill up the vacancies of 3235 posts in different cadres. The yearly examination timetable was released by TNPSC yesterday (Friday, 5th January).

 
TNPSC is the recruiting authority to fill up the vacancies in various departments of the state government of Tamil Nadu.
TNPSC releases periodic announcements/advertisements regarding the various vacancies and conducts written examinations and interviews in the selection procedure.
With excellent planning, TNPSC has been releasing the Annual examination/recruitment timetable over the last 5 years. This timetable gives the details of the number of vacancies in the various departments and the recruitment and the dates of the written examinations for the same followed by the release of the examination results and the dates of the interviews.
This TNPSC Annual Planner is being released over the last 5 years.
This timetable is of great help to the candidates as it gives them the time for a good preparation.
TNPSC released the annual planner for 2018 yesterday. The annual planner can be seen on the TNPSC official website as well – www.tnpsc.gov.in.
As per the annual planner, recruitment for filling up 3235 vacancies will be conducted in 2018 – this would include the various cadres – Group-2 posts, Labour officer, Motor Vehicle Inspector, Assistant Horticultural officer, Fisheries analyst, and assistant analyst, government assistant advocates, museum curators, librarian, Physical Education Director, etc., in 23 cadres.
TNPSC has announced that the examination procedure and the syllabus details for the examinations will be uploaded on the website.
Generally, TNPSC annual planner used to carry the details of the type of examination, date of announcement for the same, date of release of results, and the interview dates will be available. However, this year only the details regarding the examination, its announcement, and the dates of the examinations are available. The dates of result,

Fitness center in Madurai

Fitness center in madurai

People work out for many reasons in Fitness center in Madurai  they are weight control,muscle building, health, stress relief and plain old vanity. Working out at home can be effective and may even save you money, but regularly attending your Attitude Fitness center in Madurai offers  numerous advantages over home workouts.

Fitness centers provide a wide variety of exercise equipment for you to use. From free weights to resistance training machines to cardio machines to core stability equipment, in Attitude Fitness center in Madurai you can exercise in lots of different ways because there are so many options available.in Attitude Fitness center in Madurai Commercial-quality exercise equipment is expensive to buy, but in return for your monthly or annual gym membership fee, in Attitude Fitness center in Madurai you will have access to potentially millions of dollars worth of gym equipment. click to know more 
Fitness centers provide a safe and comfortable workout environment. You don’t need to worry about traffic or unpleasant weather in  Attitude Fitness center in Madurai ,while riding an exercise bike or jogging on a treadmill. Additionally, qualified group fitness instructors and personal trainers in  Attitude Fitness center in Madurai will be on hand to tell you how to perform your chosen exercises safely and effectively. The exercise equipment is often well maintained and the facility clean and hygienic Attitude Fitness center in Madurai , which will further decrease your risk of injury. All in all, visiting your local fitness center should be an enjoyable and safe experience  in  Attitude Fitness center in Madurai
Group Exercise Classes in  Attitude Fitness center in Madurai 
 Attitude Fitness center in Madurai  offer group exercise classes. Spinning, BodyPump, yoga, Pilates, circuit training and tai chi are all examples of common and popular group exercise classes. Classes are normally labeled according to difficulty so you can choose the class that best suits your fitness level, exercise preferences and personality.
An exercise program can be tough to stick with — especially if you are doing it alone at home. However, after a few visits to your new gym, you will probably notice the same people exercising at the same time you do in Attitude Fitness center in Madurai . Your fellow exercisers are just like you; they want to get in shape and be fit and healthy. As members of the same fitness club, you have a common bond and that can be encouraging and help you maintain your new resolution. In addition, the facility’s staff can offer advice and support to help you reach your fitness goals. This includes exercise program design, nutrition advice and even help with giving up smoking or making other lifestyle changes.
Some fitness centers offer more than just a place to work out. Many have juice bars, cafes, tennis, squash or basketball courts, swimming pools, saunas, steam rooms and beauty therapy and massage services. While you might not want to use all of these additional features and you should pick your club based on what you are going to actually enjoy using, these additional services can make going to the gym an even more enjoyable experience.
Fitness centers — most commonly referred to as gyms — provide assistance with achieving your best physique. A membership to a fitness center delivers convenient, all-in-one-place access to equipment, classes and health information so you can schedule year-round aerobic and strength training workouts. Optimize your use of gym membership by familiarizing yourself with all the benefits a fitness center offers.
Fitness centers offer group classes which allow the support and camaraderie of others as opposed to working out at home alone. In a group class, you are likely to encounter new friendship opportunities and serious motivation. These classes are equally beneficial in helping keep you accountable to yourself and others in your fitness program. You can measure your progress against the class standard and your own milestones — and get inspired to up your challenge level by the performance of others in the class and the encouragement of the instructor. Group classes may include step aerobics, muscle toning, Pilates mat, Tae Kwon Do, kickboxing, spinning, yoga and dance classes.
Fitness centers offer the option of choosing a personal trainer to steer you toward your fitness goals. Personal trainers in reputable gyms are certified professionals who will create a custom workout program for you, work with you during each visit, increase the challenges as you gain fitness, and give you helpful tips about maximizing the benefits of each exercise and varying equipment. Some fitness centers provide nutritionists help ensure your eating plan and exercise program are in sync to help you achieve your best physique.
A membership to a fitness center offers a wide variety of amenities and equipment, from saunas to weight rooms. Reaching your fitness goals is made easier by the convenience to chose from a plethora of gym equipment. Types of equipment include resistance machines such as leg press, leg curl, chest press, shoulder press and lat pull down. Free-weight equipment such as bench press, military press, cable cross-over and dumbbells are also available. Additional equipment includes medicine and stability balls and a variety of cardiovascular machines such as treadmills, ellipticals, rowers and steppers in Attitude Fitness center in Madurai
Fitness centers enforce strict etiquette to ensure members’ safety and health. Check-in with ID cards limits admission to screened members. Dress codes keep it professional — and lower the risk of injury due to use of improper clothing while working with equipment. Members or gym staff are required to disinfect exercise equipment after each use to prevent the spreading of bacteria and germs. Shower, sauna and locker rooms are sanitized to prevent the spread of germs. Certified trainers monitor workout rooms to be sure members are using machines properly and safely.

Gold rate in chennai

The Different Karats of Gold rate in chennai 

Date Pure Gold (24 k) Standard Gold (22 K)
1 grm 8 grm 1 grm 8 grm
13/January/2018 3012.00 24096.00 2869.00 22952.00
12/January/2018 2992.00 23936.00 2850.00 22800.00
11/January/2018 2975.00 23800.00 2833.00 22664.00
10/January/2018 2967.00 23736.00 2826.00 22608.00
09/January/2018 2962.00 23696.00 2821.00 22568.00
08/January/2018 2955.00 23640.00 2814.00 22512.00
07/January/2018 2966.00 23728.00 2825.00 22600.00
06/January/2018 2966.00 23728.00 2825.00 22600.00
05/January/2018 2959.00 23672.00 2818.00 22544.00
04/January/2018 2946.00 23568.00 2806.00 22448.00

 

Karat is the term used to measure the gold  content or purity. Before we understand the difference between 24k, 22k and 18k gold, you must know what karat stands for. Karat is basically a unit used to measure the purity of gold rate in chennai. The higher the karatage, the purer the gold. Here’s a simple guide to understanding the difference between 24k, 22k and 18k gold rate in chennai. Register your Business for free
 
 
24k gold is also called pure gold or 100 per cent gold. This means that all 24 parts in the gold rate in chennai  are all pure gold without traces of any other metals. It is known to be 99.9 per cent pure and takes on a distinct bright yellow color. There is no higher form of gold than 24K and you must be aware of this before you go to a dealer who might tell you that they’re selling you 25K or 26K gold rate in chennai. Since this is the purest form of gold, it is naturally more expensive than 22K or 18K gold rate in chennai. However, this type of gold is lesser in density as compared to gold of a lower karatage which makes it soft and pliable. Hence, it is not suited for regular forms of jewellery. Coins and bars are mostly bought of 24K gold purity. 24K gold is also used in electronics and medical devices such as those used for children suffering from ear infections who are fitted with gold tympanostomy tubes that are known to improve aeration of the middle ear.
 
 
22K gold rate in chennai  jewellery implies that 22 parts of the jewellery amounts to gold and the balance 2 parts are some other metals. This kind of gold is commonly used in jewellery making. In 22K gold rate in chennai, of the 100 per cent, only 91.67 per cent is pure gold rate in chennai,The other 8.33 per cent comprises metals like silver, zinc, nickel and other alloys. It is this addition of metals that make the texture of gold harder thereby making the jewellery durable. However, you must know that although this can be used to make plain gold jewellery, 22K gold isn’t preferable for diamonds and heavily studded jewellery.
 
 
18K gold is 75 per cent gold mixed with 25 per cent of other metals like copper or silver etc. Usually studded jewellery and other diamond jewellery is made in 18K gold. This kind of gold is less expensive compared to 24K and 22K. This one has a slightly dull gold colour. Recognizing 18K jewellery is rather simple – you will see the item stamped with 18K, 18Kt, 18k or a variation similar to these. At times, 18K gold is marked by 750, 0.75 or a stamp similar to these in order to symbolise that the jewellery contains 75 per cent gold.
How is fineness calculated?
 
In the West the karat is expressed in fineness. For e.g. 24 k gold is expressed as 1000 parts out of 1000 pure or fineness 1.000. 22 k is expressed as 22 divided by 24, multiplied by 1000 which will give you a fineness of 0.9166, 21 karat is 21 divided by 24 multiplied by 1000 which is 0.875 fineness and similarly 18 karat is 0.750 fineness.
 
 
24 karat gold has the natural warm colour of pure gold and its colour cannot be changed without changing the purity to less than 24 k. Other colours of gold can be made by changing the composition of the alloy in the making of the jewellery.
 
Pink or Rose gold – Pink gold is made by adding more copper in the alloy composition of the gold
Green Gold – Gold is given a green colour by adding more of zinc and silver
White Gold – the white colour of gold is achieved by adding nickel or palladium
A surface colour can also be given to gold articles by electro-plating. However this can only be a surface finish and will be worn off over a period of time.
24 karat gold contains 24 parts pure gold. 22 karat gold contains 22 parts gold and 2 parts of other metals added as alloy. 21 karat gold contains 21 parts gold with three parts of other metals added. 18 karat gold contains 18 parts pure gold with 6 parts of other metals added. In the West the karat is expressed in fineness. For eg. 24 k gold is expressed as 1000 parts out of 1000 pure or fineness 1.000. 22 k is expressed as 22 divided by 24 , multiplied by 1000 which will give you a fineness of .9166, 21 karat is 21 divided by 24 multiplied by 1000 which is .875 fineness and similarly 18 karat is .750 fineness.  gold rate in chennai is determined by  daily market rate.
 
 
24 karat = 99.5% pure gold and above
22 karat = 91.7 % gold
18 karat = 75.0 % gold
14 karat = 58.3 % gold
12 karat = 50.0 % gold
10 karat = 41.7 % gold
 
 
A soft metal with a characteristic yellow colour. It is chemically unreactive, although it will dissolve in aqua regia (a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids).
 
Uses
Most mined gold is stored as bullion. It is also, however, used extensively in jewellery, either in its pure form or as an alloy. The term ‘carat’ indicates the amount of gold present in an alloy. 24-carat is pure gold, but it is very soft. 18- and 9-carat gold alloys are commonly used because they are more durable.
 
The metal is also used for coinage, and has been used as standard for monetary systems in some countries.
 
Gold can be beaten into very thin sheets (gold leaf) to be used in art, for decoration and as architectural ornament. Electroplating can be used to cover another metal with a very thin layer of gold. This is used in gears for watches, artificial limb joints, cheap jewellery and electrical connectors. It is ideal for protecting electrical copper components because it conducts electricity well and does not corrode (which would break the contact). Thin gold wires are used inside computer chips to produce circuits.
 
Dentists sometimes use gold alloys in fillings, and a gold compound is used to treat some cases of arthritis.
 
Gold nanoparticles are increasingly being used as industrial catalysts. Vinyl acetate, which is used to make PVA (for glue, paint and resin), is made using a gold catalyst.
 
Gold has no known biological role, and is non-toxic.
Natural abundance
Gold is one of the few elements to occur in a natural state. It is found in veins and alluvial deposits. About 1500 tonnes of gold are mined each year. About two-thirds of this comes from South Africa and most of the rest from Russia.
 
Seawater contains about 4 grams of gold in 1,000,000 tonnes of water. Overall this is a huge amount of gold stored in the oceans but, because the concentration is so low, attempts to reclaim this gold have always failed.
 
History of gold rate in chennai

Gold has been known since prehistoric times and was one of the first metals to be worked, mainly because it was to be found as nuggets or as particles in the beds of streams. Such was the demand that by 2000 BC the Egyptians began mining gold. The death mask of Tutankhamen, who died in 1323 BC, contained 100 kg of the metal. The royal graves of ancient Ur (modern Iraq), which flourished from 3800 to 2000 BC, also contained gold objects.

 
The minting of gold coins began around 640 BC in the Kingdom of Lydia (situated in what is now modern Turkey) using electrum, a native alloy of gold and silver. The first pure gold coins were minted in the reign of King Croesus, who ruled from 561–547 BC
 

Why and when to hold gold bullion?

Gold Bullion Bar
 
“Gold is the proven, quality, long-term wealth store during a slide into deep crisis – the one which everyone else comes to in a bit of a panic.
 
Even if, to begin with, the early buyers are buying gold purely to protect their wealth they still tend to multiply their money, because they are subconsciously anticipating future demand. The best investments do this.”
 
Gold’s Greatest Use
People always ask ‘But what’s the use of gold?’ which encourages some experts to pretend gold is vital for dentistry and electronics. It isn’t. The fact is that gold is hardly useful at all in industry, but that certainly does not mean it is not useful at all.
 
So let’s explain clearly why gold has repeatedly become one of the most fundamentally useful things there is in human society, and to do that let’s first recognize its main quality – its reliably rare supply.
 
How Much Gold Is There?
Even with modern technology gold is still incredibly difficult to find.
 
In total about 160,000 tonnes of gold have been taken out of the Earth.
 
A 205000 tonne Gold Cube
That 160,000 tonnes is less than you might think. Formed into a single gold cube it wouldn’t quite cover a tennis court. In fact it would be 2 metres short. But that’s all the gold in the world.
 
Gold is being mined at about 2,600 tonnes a year, so the above ground supply is expanding at 1.6% per annum. This newly mined supply means the world’s cube of gold – currently 20.2 metres across – is growing by just 11 cm per year.
 
All the world’s gold will cover a tennis court when the above ground stock is 205,000 tonnes. This will be some time around 2025.
 
205,000 tonnes is approximately the sum of the current above ground stocks (approximately 160,000 tonnes) plus the aggregate un-mined known reserves of all the world’s gold mining companies (approximately 50,000 tonnes).
 
That’s all the world’s gold – both above ground, and known about but still underground.
 
Gold is not consumed in any meaningful sense. A tiny amount finds some use as false teeth because of its inertness, and some is used in electronics because of its non-corrosive nature and excellent conductivity.
But currently well over 95% of the world’s gold is held as a wealth store – either in bullion vaults or as jewelry, which is generally considered a private monetary reserve (particularly in India, the world’s biggest gold customer).
 
This stock of gold isn’t disappearing, and its supply is growing at a very slow rate (1.6% pa) compared to its overall stock. This feature of a nearly fixed above ground quantity, growing slowly, has been true for about 4,000 years.
 
So you can now see that there exists a large, but not too large, and almost fixed quantity of gold in the world, almost all of which is held by its owners as a tangible store of wealth. That is something which is true of nothing else.
 
By contrast to gold’s restricted supply our money systems are currently expanding out of control. Modern loose monetary policies – designed to keep the factories busy – are expanding the supply of currency, under political direction, by at least 11% per annum; and that’s for the Euro, the most hawkishly managed of the modern world’s major currencies.
 
In such circumstances gold’s reliable rarity is again noticed by savers. Its great use is as a money proxy when artificial forms of money (which are far more common) are not being properly restricted in supply. In such times gold’s unexpandable supply causes it to be a much more reliable store of purchasing power than currency. Nothing does this job so reliably and so well as gold, because nothing matches the unimpeachable rarity and stability of gold’s above ground supply.
Better still, as people come to remember and appreciate this unique quality their demand for gold causes not just a retention of purchasing power, but a multiplication of it.
 
Gold rate in chennai  – A Tool of Trade
 
Here’s a 2,000 year old Roman explanation of a vital tool of trade.
 
“The origin of buying and selling began with exchange.
 
Anciently money was unknown, and there existed no terms by which merchandise could be precisely valued. Every one, according to the wants of the time and circumstances, exchanged things useless to him, against things which were useful; for it commonly happens that one is in need of what another has in excess.
 
But it seldom coincided in time that what one possessed the other wanted, or vice versa. So a device was chosen whose value remedied by its homogeneity the difficulties of barter.”
 
Trade is right at the heart of human society, and it creates the need for this ‘device’ to store value for later exchange. The device needs homogeneity – constancy of form and quantity – which most governments attempt to deliver with paper money, and they are successful most of the time.
 
But when the going gets tough governments bend their own rules. They start to issue more and more money, and then nothing exists which matches the homogeneity of gold.
 
The Romans joined a long list of civilisations which chose gold as a reliable, apolitical, monetary medium. Before them there were the great classical civilisations of the Greeks, Persians, Ionians, and the Egyptians. After them there were many more, through the Spanish, French, Ottoman, British and American empires, all of them with gold based monetary systems.
 
But every single one of those gold based currencies eventually failed – the gold stopped circulating as the money of normal transactions, as currency. So it’s best to avoid the misunderstanding of history which leads so-called “gold bugs” to regard gold as the world’s only true and permanent money, because the hard historical fact is that it has been tested – often – and it both disappears and re-appears, depending on the prevailing economic circumstances.
 
Yet what is different about gold and other forms of money is the way they disappear, and why. Because its natural qualities recommend it as a high quality form of money gold suffers from Gresham’s Law, a common sense law in economics which states that “bad money drives good money out of circulation”.
 
Think about it for a moment and you’ll see that given a choice of spending good money (gold) or bad money (inflating paper) you’d spend the paper and keep the gold as a store of value. So in an economy where economic and political considerations have combined to produce a paper currency running in parallel with gold, and where that currency is showing the early signs of being dangerously expanded in supply, then people will elect to hold on to gold and spend paper. Magnified millions of times by everyday transactions in a typical economy this eventually stops gold circulating as money.
 
For much the same reasons when their time is up paper currencies will pour into circulation as people look to buy hard assets, until eventually the best value you will get from the banknote is to use it as heating fuel.
 
This is the key difference. While paper money forms disappear permanently, and lose all their value, gold disappears temporarily, and retains its value over the very long term.
 
Every few years, and when circumstances are right, gold returns. It has a history of doing so which has lasted those 4,000 years.
 
The trick with gold is to understand the causes for these rolling phases, to recognise them, and to act appropriately. If you own gold at the right time you will own a fast appreciating asset when normal business assets, and money itself, are tumbling in value.
 
Owning gold in good phase is very profitable. In the 5 years after the 1929 crash gold’s investment purchasing power rose 17 times.
 
In the decade of the 1970s gold’s investment purchasing power rose 15 times.
 
So far in gold’s current re-emergence, with the economic situation looking every bit as as hostile as the 30s and the 70s, gold’s price has multiplied by about 3 times. By comparison with those previous cycles it is still nearer the bottom than the top.
 
And Gold Can Destroy It Too
But don’t forget gold lost nearly seven eighths of its investment purchasing power between 1980 and 2000. That was during the best period for growing businesses in the twentieth century.
 
That price slide shows that smart investors should not grow too fond of their gold! Even though it’s currently pretty grim the time will come when the outlook for business has improved, and most people either will not have realised it, or will still be too nervous to do anything about it.
 
Then it will be smart to sell your gold, and use its purchasing power to invest in people and businesses, and to participate once again in the dynamic creation of wealth.
 
The people who manage to do this will be the smartest of all gold buyers. They are not hoarding gold for its own sake. They are positioning themselves to be able to invest actively in a recovery which is a long way off. By doing this they will be both profiting themselves and serving their communities at the same time. Capital which has not been adequately protected right now will simply not be there to invest in the business opportunities of the future.

The rapid pace of technological innovation has put many industries at risk of disruption. Financial technology has received particular attention, as it has the potential to eliminate certain types of financial intermediary, simplify services and reduce costs. Indeed, consumers armed with smartphones increasingly demand financial services that are innovative, offer a slick user experience and are priced transparently.

 
 
In this fast-changing environment, it is worth questioning whether such trends will affect gold demand and the way gold is accessed and traded by investors.
 
The World Gold Council believes that technology is an important enabler in the democratisation of gold ownership, making gold accessible to new segments of investors and consumers. Historically, investing in gold could be difficult and complex, particularly with respect to safe storage. Innovation has led to the emergence of new gold product categories, such as ETFs and a new breed of online-only vaulted gold providers. These product innovations, now readily accessible by mobile phone, have made investing in gold a simpler and more cost-effective experience.
 
 
While technological progress will undoubtedly improve access to gold, it is perhaps less clear whether these developments also introduce risks for gold. Will gold lose its relevance, for example, in an increasingly digital world?
 
We don’t believe that it will. Gold’s enduring history and unique properties are arguably more, not less, important in an environment where the pace of change is accelerating and we consume ever more ‘virtual’ products and services.
 
We don’t discount the potential of cryptocurrencies, such as BitCoin and ethereum, for certain applications, but they are a long way from establishing themselves as alternatives to gold. The vast size of the gold market and gold’s diverse sources of demand provide it with unique characteristics as an alternative asset class. Moreover, the technical innovations that underpin cryptocurrencies are already helping to reduce costs and friction in the gold market.
 
 
A specific technology that gold market participants are likely to hear more about is blockchain or distributed ledger technology. For gold investors, blockchain could enable product providers to offer a more transparent and secure record of pseudo-anonymised transactions to their customers and help enable services such as gold-backed payments.
 
Blockchain may also be able to augment or replace the post-trade settlement infrastructure that underpins the wholesale markets for gold. Several companies are exploring opportunities in this space, hoping to eliminate settlement risks as well as introducing greater operational efficiency to the trade lifecycle. Even more boldly, blockchain could be one of several technologies that could transform the gold supply chain, helping to track gold across every stage of production from ‘mine to vault’. Establishing tamper-proof gold provenance would make the gold market more transparent and efficient and help stamp out illegal practices such as the smuggling of gold from conflict areas.
 
Overall, the World Gold Council believes that modern technology holds great promise for gold. In this edition of Gold Investor, we include views from several market participants about the impact of FinTech on gold, ranging from gold-linked financial services to Chinese mobile apps to gold and blockchain. Many new products and services are emerging – and we include just a few of the more prominent examples – but, across the industry, it would seem that gold market participants view technology as an opportunity for gold, rather than a thr