A test, known as ‘lipid profile’ is conducted. Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial broad medical screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides.
This test must be taken only in the body condition when no food had been taken in the previous 12 hours. Even drinks must be avoided, Only water can be taken during these 12 hours.
It is advisable to have this test for males above 35 years of age and females above 45 years of age.
However, it is better for all people with prospects of excess fat in their bloodlines to take this blood test.
It is really essential for the following cadres of all age groups to have this blood test as mandatory:
· People with high blood pressure
· People affected by renal failure
· People affected by heart attacks or paralytic attacks.
· The hereditary or relatives of the above cadre
· People with obesity
· People with habits of smoking/drinking
· The workers who do not have scope for physical exercises in their jobs
· Women after menopause
There are different types of blood cholesterol – Total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride. Out of this the complaint deserving the utmost attention is the cholesterol, known as ‘bad cholesterol’ or LDL – ‘Low-Density Lipoprotein’ and triglyceride cholesterol.
The food habits constitute only 25% of reasons for these complaints whereas there are other factors that constitute 75% of these complaints.
Let us know these ‘other factors’ and their play:
· Hereditary features – 15%
· Obesity – 12%
· Hormones and enzymes – 2%
· Mental tension, tending to be sensitively emotional, the social status – 8%
· Diabetes – 7%
· Lifestyle without many physical exercises – 6%
· Smoking and pollution/environmental hazards – 6%
· The gender, aging factor, some drugs and similar other factors – 5%
List of Foods That a High Cholesterol Person should avoid
Eggs are considered to be a healthy choice when taken within certain limits. Eggs are allowed to be taken as part of the healthy diet as long as they are not accompanied by dairy products and meat. It is better to avoid other cholesterol-rich foods for lunch when an egg was taken as breakfast. A single egg yolk has 210mg of cholesterol. So, avoid regular intake of egg yolk as well.
Eating lunch at a fast food restaurant is not advisable. Prior to ordering any cheeseburger, it is worthy of remembering the presence of 75mg of cholesterol in Big Mac and 175mg of cholesterol in classic double food item. So, it is better to order for a plain burger. Enjoying the tasty one rarely could be fine but, not regularly. About 123mg of cholesterol is found in 100gms of cheese and 21mg in one inch cube.
Liver in most of the meat consists of 564mg of cholesterol per 100gms of meat. As per the estimation made by the American Heart Association, three ounces of the cooked beef liver will have 331mg of cholesterol.
Butter is liked by many people in their food. Butter of 100gms consists of 215mg of cholesterol and one tablespoon of butter consists of 30mg of cholesterol. It is better to avoid taking butter regularly.
Shrimp of 100gms comprises of 195mg of cholesterol. A large single shrimp consists of 11mg of cholesterol and an ounce of shrimp consists of 55mg of cholesterol. Choosing the seafood that is boiled is better than the fried one as some of the seafoods are rich in cholesterol, while some do not.
Chicken is generally considered as a low-fat option in meat. But, the way it is cooked does bring the difference. It is evaluated that one skinned chicken leg has more cholesterol than that is present in a burger or in a cup of ice cream. Chicken skin has high cholesterol.
Egg or chip or cheese biscuit consists of 172mg of cholesterol per 100gms of the food. There is about 246mg of cholesterol in one cheese biscuit. The trans-fats present in the fast foods get transformed into high-cholesterol food. Trans-fats are formed due to the addition of hydrogen to the vegetable oils that are further used in commercial foods like cakes, fries, cookies and potato chips.
The cholesterol content in the processed meat is based on the cut that is used and the added fat content at the time of processing. Lamb and duck meats are known to have a lot of cholesterol.
A cup of ice cream will have more cholesterol than that is present in a hamburger. It has more cholesterol than it is in 10 glazed doughnuts. Trying fresh fruits for the dessert than the ice cream would be a wise option. Fruits are high in vitamins, minerals, fiber and low in calories. So, fruit option for dessert would help you lower the cholesterol.
However, the food habit is the highest constitutional factor with 25% in the cause of bad cholesterol. Thus, the wrong food habits are the main reason for bad cholesterol increase. After the food habit, the hereditary feature is the next most important constituent leading to this complaint.
Now, what are the steps to avoid the bad cholesterol?
· Avoid high-cholesterol food items
· Make a serious attempt to reduce the quantity of intake of all high-fat food items
· Take additional quantities whole-grain foods, vegetables, and fruits.
· Just give up the smoking and drinking habits
· Make it a regular habit to take physical exercises st specified periods.
· Take care to maintain the body weight as recommended by the height.
· Take regular medical check-ups and strictly follow the medical advice
· It is of paramount importance to keep the blood pressure and the sugar level under control for the patients with these complaints.
So, if you take care and act accordingly, there is no fear about ‘bad cholesterol’.
Don’t you think it’s strange that a lot of world leaders share the same habits? Many world leaders share the same history, same morning routine, same working habits and it is not something they have been taught, but things they have embraced over time and learnt from each other. So do you really know what habits, childhood traits or practices differentiates a successful person from an unsuccessful person? Research conducted by Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck reveals a successful individual’s intellectual acuity.
1. Successful people focus on problem-solving If you spot a person who’s always focusing on solving a problem rather than wondering why it arose in the first place, watch out for them. These people are born leaders and mentors. They see every problem as a challenge that they have to tackle. These people are not afraid of going out of their comfort zone, unlike those who wait for others to take action and pass on things.
2. Successful people don’t avoid challenges “Embracing change is one of the hardest things a person can do”, yet most successful people have a history of doing just that. They are comfortable taking risks and even view their failures with a positive frame of mind. They want to explore opportunities to grow and advance their careers and bring more opportunities to the table.
3. Successful people dedicate time to self-improvement It’s impossible to constantly be at the top without growing, a fact everyone who made it is well aware of, making self-improvement crucial for survival. As a matter of fact, almost everyone who’s successful dedicates time to reading, learning, improving, and working on a new skill that will keep them ahead of everyone. According to Dweck, there are only two ways in which you can describe a person’s behavioural trait – fixed and growth mindsets. Further with the help of Nigel Holmes, the traits have been explained. Dweck claims that a person with a fixed mindset sees himself with static traits and a deterministic outlook. This person sees himself as an already completed task, not open to changes or challenges. As a result, they avoid grasping new things. However, the person with a growth mindset sees failure as an opportunity and work on it.
4. Successful people see failure as an opportunity In an exercise conducted by Dweck, a group of 128 children aged between 10-11 were divided into two groups. Now one group was chosen based on their ability to work hard while the other based on their intelligence. When given hard problems to solve, the former performed repeatedly well as opposed to the latter. Dweck claims that people who believe in their hard work and are aware of their capabilities do not give up easily in situations and see every failure as an opportunity to perform better. DON’T MISS 5. Successful people believe in themselves and don’t give up Dweck further writes that “the view you adopt for yourself profoundly affects the way you lead your life. It can determine whether you become the person you want to be and whether you commit to and accomplish the things you value.” That said, successful people don’t cloak themselves with self-doubt after every failed opportunity. The only difference between them and those who don’t succeed is that successful people don’t give up.
6. Successful people have a strong work ethic Taking further reference from the group of 128 kids, hardworking kids showed a strong work ethic as opposed to those who thought that they were hard working.
6)People with fixed mindsets think that they have reached their goal and that they need no improvement. But those who have a growth mindset have a strong work ethic and are always in a space where they want to learn.
7. Successful people don’t seek approbation Most successful people believe in themselves and do not seek approbation from the outside world. If they think that their passion is driven enough to take them places, they revel in it. Those who seek everyone’s approval often fall prey to what others think of them.
8. Successful people have a sense of ownership Taking responsibility and accountability for their actions comes naturally to successful people. They do not try to cover up their mistakes. Instead, they try to learn from others and their own failings. Successful people will not make the same mistake twice.
9. Successful people focus on goals and people equally Someone said that good leaders compromise numbers for people and bad leaders compromise people for numbers, but in retrospect, successful people who are also everlasting leaders do not compromise on anything – they focus on their goals and people equally. To keep themselves motivated, successful people set goals for themselves and others.
10. Successful people are always growing Having a very strong sense of self-awareness, successful people know that to be able to look life squarely in the eye they have to be prepared for everything that comes their way. Therefore, either through reading or podcasts, they are always preparing themselves for challenges and unforeseeable battles.
11. Successful people value their time Time indeed is the most valuable asset that successful people have – to do things in time, to do it before others do, make the most of given time etc. They value their time more than their money.
Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person/Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person
Red guavas are the tastiest among the guava varieties. It contains lesser calories and more fibre. Red guava is also rich in carotenoid, Vitamins A, C, B3, B6, B8, fibre, Potassium, and foliate.
The nutrients in the red guava play an important role in the body cell growth and also prevent some diseases like breast cancer. It also regulates blood pressure and keeps it in check and prevents high blood pressure.
Red Guava also removes the harmful fats in our system and prevents heart-related diseases. Guava is rich in Vitamin B8, which is essential, especially for the pregnant women. By taking red guava, the pregnant women can prevent some of the defects in the process of fetus formation.
Red guava, containing Vitamins B3 and B9, increases the blood circulation in the brain also prevents headaches and mental tension.
As we take red guava, its iron content increases our body resistance to various illnesses or complaints and also prevent viral diseases which cause fever, cold, cough, etc.
Red guava is rich in fibre and has a low glycemic index. So, this prevents the increase of sugar level in blood. So, diabetics can indeed eat red guava without any anxiety.
unknown facts about Chocolates
How far can chocolates invite your attention? Got immense love towards binging on chocolates? Not just kids, even adults of all age groups have special love for chocolates. It is however considered as one of the sinful desserts! What we fail to notice is that there are several vital nutrients contained in chocolates that can aid you in keeping your lifestyle healthy.
When you’re stressed out, munching a chocolate can instantly awaken your mood. Perhaps, you can try it during your next premenstrual syndrome.
To believe in chocolates, you should first of all break all the myths revolving around. So, here are the myths you got to stay away from!
The first myth is that it has no health benefit at all!
Chocolates are rich in antioxidants, zinc and magnesium. They also contain high levels of calcium, phosphate and protein that helps in bringing down resistance towards insulin. There is very high amount of antioxidants in dark chocolate. You can keep your blood pressure under control by eating them.
The second myth is that it is very high caffeine content
You can elevate your mood by eating chocolates! However, they actually do not contain very high levels of caffeine. There is 6g of caffeine in a chocolate bar or a glass full of chocolate milk. This is more or less the same as the quantity present in decaffeinated coffee.
The third myth is that Chocolates can lead to acne
Of course, your skin health largely relies on what you eat. Due to the fat content present in chocolates, you may develop acne, but there is very little chance for it. When you take up more of oily foods, it can lead to acne.
The fourth myth is that Chocolates lead to weight gain
Your weight gain is not just because of chocolates! Your health doesn’t get hit by chocolate consumption. When you consume excessive processed foods, it would result in weight gain.
Fifth myth is that you may develop cavities
Believe that chocolates don’t solely cause cavities! Cavities develop when your mouth has cavities. When the sugar or starch in body gets metabolized by bacteria in your mouth and produces acid, it leads to cavities. The acid then accumulates on tooth enamel thus causing cavity.
Chocolates contain very high saturated fat
There is very high level of s stearic acid present in milk chocolate. This in no way surges cholesterol level in your body. According to studies, you can have chocolate bar rather than carbohydrate-rich food that would lead to uptick in cholesterol level.
Seventh myth is that chocolates lead to headache
First of all, chocolate is never the cause for migraine or headache. There are a lot of studies that claim that there is absolutely no link between chocolates and headaches. However, remember that if you are already prone to headache, with no munching of even a piece of chocolate, the pain may get triggered.
The eighth myth is that white chocolate is also a chocolate
Know that white chocolates are made up of cocoa butter, vanilla and milk solids. They are not chocolates in real. Better said is that they are not chocolates at all as they don’t contain cocoa powder.
The night myth is that chocolates don’t have any nutritive value
There is very high polyphenol content in chocolates. Polyphenols are antioxidants present in red wine. These are known for reducing the risk of coronary heart disease. There is very high antioxidant content in dark chocolates.
The last myth is that diabetics shouldn’t near chocolates
It is definitely not that diabetics should say no to chocolates whenever they are offered one! They have very low glycemic index and hence, chocolates help in improving insulin sensitivity. The endothelial dysfunction gets improved with chocolate consumption.
unknown facts about Chocolates/unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates /unknown facts about Chocolates
Traditional Methods Adopted to find Water level in your Plot/Property
1) What is involved?
Searching for water located below the earth’s surface, in phreatic layers or aquifers, in order to pump it. This is done with the utmost care and precision, using appropriate techniques, in order to dig or drill wells in the best possible places and thereby avoid costly, discouraging failures.
2) Who use this means and since when?
Around 1250 BC, Moses searched for water in the Sinai desert using his divining rod, practicing an art known since early Antiquity. However, the modern techniques stem from the 20th century.
This method is mainly used in developing countries or other regions where water is rare and where irrigation is essential for crops. It is also used in developed countries but mainly for uses other than direct consumption (gardening, geothermal energy).
Given the growing and vital importance of water and soil resources around the world, as well as their scarcity, we need to do everything possible to improve the finding, management, and preservation of these essential and fragile resources.
Groundwater is usually good-quality water. As it is often buried at significant depths, it is highly advisable to locate it as precisely as possible and assess its quantity and quality before undertaking costly drilling work and thus avoid costly failures.
This water can be detected with more or less precision depending on the methods used, through the electromagnetic waves it emits.
4) Who is primarily concerned? Places or contexts in which this method seems most appropriate
This method primarily concerns underprivileged rural or peri-urban areas. In mountain areas, this method is difficult to implement due to the great depths involved.
It particularly concerns regions prone to severe droughts. Indeed, aquifers are natural underground reservoirs capable of supplying large quantities of drinking water during the dry season, when rivers are likely to dry up.
5) What does this process involve? How is it implemented?
In actual fact, it consists of different methods ranging from the most rudimentary – but nevertheless of interest for people or small communities with little means, such as dowsing – to the most sophisticated such as the prior analysis of satellite photos or proton magnetic resonance (PMR) investigations.
The purpose of this document is not to give detailed explanations of the mode of operation and use of the various techniques, as most of them are fairly costly and can only be used by specialists. Instead, it aims to explain the principle and main advantages and drawbacks of the techniques, so that the communities and people concerned can find out about their main characteristics and be able to contact specialized companies, having gained a better knowledge of the facts.
The search for groundwater sources must take account of technical (hydrogeological) criteria as well as socio-economic criteria (closeness to a village, cost of investigation). In actual fact, closeness to the beneficiaries often remains the prime criterion.
There are various methods for investigating phreatic layers. Traditionally, dowsing was the only way of searching for groundwater. Subsequently, more modern and scientific techniques were developed, significantly improving the success rate of water collection facilities.
a) Preliminary survey
It is highly advisable for phreatic layer investigators, especially if they are not from the region concerned, to carry out preliminary surveys in order to collect information which can give them precious data on the places where there is a likelihood of finding water.
Depending on the size of the expected source, this can consist of either :
– after a first look at the site and a meeting with the chiefs or heads of the villages, a survey with their population to find out where wells would have been dug or where springs would have been used, where the vegetation is greenest and remains green during the dry season, where trees and plants naturally grow best, where the existing water sources have the highest outflow in all seasons, where the termite mounds are located, if any, etc.
– or, at the same time, research into the region’s geological map, climatic data and all appropriate information which may be obtained from the local or regional authorities or other organisations or operators working in the region.
In numerous countries (including France), certain people have the ability to investigate and determine the presence of water on a site and detect water channels (veins, faults, and aquifers).
These “dowsers” are often people who have special abilities passed down by their predecessors or a village wise man or woman.
The principle consists in :
USE OF A FORKED TWIG BY A DOWSER IN
BURKINA FASO – PHOTO SOGREAH
– Choosing a forked or Y-shaped twig from a tree such as a mango tree or using metal rods
– Positioning the twig or rods between the fingers so as to amplify the sensations felt and seeing if they twitch and go down (or cross) at the expected place.
– Criss-crossing the area in order to determine the most promising areas.
There are different types of divining rods :
– The Y-shaped or V-shaped twig
– Metal rods
– Parallel rods
– The Hartmann lobe
– The Lecher antenna
When the dowser uses metal rods, he holds them parallel between his fingers. When he comes close to a place under which there is water, the rods get closer together and end up crossing over one another where a groundwater source is significant. This can be tested and proves successful with many people, but the findings are imprecise and do not indicate the size of the aquifer.
Moreover, this method doesn’t make it possible to detect small, relatively deep groundwater flows.
c) Modern methods
These methods make it possible to locate aquifers with more precision, and they are much more efficient in assessing their size, volume, quality and sustainability.
Analysing maps and local vegetation gives a first indication of the presence of water. In the case of large-scale investigations, a global geological analysis can even be carried out through the interpretation of satellite images or aerial photos. These can highlight the presence of the major geological outlines liable to give rise to fractures with an identifiable direction or outcrops.
Geophysical methods are now the main methods of investigation and detection of underground aquifers. The method is chosen mainly depends on the geological context.
With these methods, we strive to study the soil’s physical properties and in particular its electrical properties. The aquifers are most often trapped between rock layers. All rocks conduct a certain amount of electricity, but their conductivity and resistivity vary according to their type: compact rock, dry rock, fractured rock, wet rock, permeable structures or impermeable ones.
A material’s electrical resistivity is its capacity to oppose the flow of electric current.
These methods are thus based on the capacity of the soil or rock to conduct electricity and the measurement of their conductivity or resistivity (the opposite of conductivity).
From these measurements, the type, size, and quality of the aquifer is deduced and specified, or perhaps only presumed, but with a high probability.
There are two main types of methods, which are sometimes used successively :
a) The measurement of electrical resistivity using direct current.
This is the most widely used method as it is suited to the greatest number of situations.
It consists in sending direct current into a geological structure on a given site (50 to 400 volts depending on its resistivity – conductivity) using two electrodes (A and B).
There are several possible electrode arrays (Wenner, Schlumberger, 4 terminals, etc.).
The area investigated must not be too large and must be relatively flat and free of buildings which may cause interference and would make it impossible to have AB lines of the required length (over 300m).
b) Methods for measuring this reactivity by magnetic means
Easier to implement, such as the Slingram and VLF methods, these methods measure electromagnetic signals due to magnetic induction phenomena. They don’t need any contact with the ground and thus no electrodes. They make it possible to measure the soil’s reactivity to electromagnetic excitation. However, they cannot be used on all types of grounds or for aquifers over 20 meters deep, or even less. Their use seems to have dwindled.
SEARCH FOR WATER USING THE MAGNETIC
RESONANCE METHOD IN TCHAD
PHOTO IRIS INSTRUMENT
Proton Magnetic Resonance (PMR)
This is a direct water detection method. It consists in sending electric currents into the ground, then measuring the signals emitted by the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in water molecules. It requires sophisticated equipment including proton magnetometers which can measure electromagnetic fields ; their recordings can be interpreted on site and, most importantly, the quantity of groundwater present in the rock can be deduced in a few seconds.
The isotope method
This method is mainly useful for tracing the water flow and to estimate the age of the groundwater. We know that the phreatic layer is renewed by the infiltration of water through the inflow area, where the aquifer’s geological structure is exposed to the surface. Investigations using the isotope method can often give useful indications.
If there are infiltrations, they can be detected and assessed by analyzing the variations in the isotope content of the damp soil above the phreatic layer. The most used isotopes are tritium, deuterium, oxygen 18 and carbon 14. The results have shown that this method is reliable and promising, in particular, if it is used with the physical models describing the water flow.
6) Remarks – Precautions to be taken
– Dowsers can never guarantee the presence of water, nor its depth, quantity or quality, as their approach is solely sensory. Moreover, it can be distorted by various factors (lack of concentration, the presence of an electric current). To optimize the investigation of aquifers, additional information and measurements are thus required.
– To avoid considerable risks, it is indispensable to call on the services of hydrogeophysics experts for major drilling work.
Indeed, it is essential to have highly sophisticated equipment and to know how to maintain it, and to have solid knowledge and experience.
7) Choice of the method according to the ground’s hydrogeological characteristics
The possibilities are summarised in the table below, taken from the AFD brochure and PS Eau, mentioned at the end of this document :
8) Main advantages and drawbacks
These methods sometimes avoid serious or costly errors in groundwater investigation and save both time and money.
Preliminary on-site surveys and dowsing provide interesting indications at a very low cost when little means are available.
SEARCH FOR AN AQUIFER VIA A GEOPHYSICAL STUDY IN NAMOU
KOUNLOGUE, TOGO – PHOTO CARTAS TOGO
The methods based on electrical resistivity and conductivity are much more precise and offer great spatial measurement density, which will allow relatively detailed exploration. They make it possible to detect indirect signs of the presence of water.
The PMR method is an innovative, rapid method for the direct detection of the presence of water. Its use is expanding.
Most of the time, operations based solely on a dowser’s findings do not bear fruit or the findings are too imprecise.
What’s more, the effectiveness of a type of operation is difficult to assess since situations are rarely comparable.
Moreover, the use of this equipment presents drawbacks : it only allows detection down to a certain depth and the indications may be distorted by the presence of electromagnetic signals or electric lines.
Modern hydrogeophysics techniques are costly. They can only be used for the set-up of large or numerous water extraction facilities for which large budgets are available.
Often, investigations for large aquifers in southern countries are financed through the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank. A preliminary survey must make it possible to assess the value of the information to be obtained (i.e. their usefulness and cost).
While the cost of a dowser is low (a few tens of euros), the cost of using modern methods is much higher and depends on the situations encountered and the methods used. It always amounts to several tens of thousands of euros.
Dowsers’ rates vary according to countries, the dowser’s experience, and travel expenses. For instance, the dowsers of Dapaong in Togo charge between €80 and €160 for their services.
The cost of machines which take hydrogeophysical measurements depends on the size of the machine, maintenance costs, and training costs. These costs are difficult to assess with precision as there is little information on the remuneration of aquifer investigation specialists, on the method(s) they use and on the type of area studied.
Other costs include the transportation of equipment to the sites and accommodation and meals for the team of technicians. It is generally accepted that the search for a drilling site should not exceed 20% of the cost of the drilling operation itself.
10) Achievement examples
PMR INSTRUMENT – PHOTO IRIS INSTRUMENTS
In Chad, over 300,000 refugees from neighboring countries have settled in the east of the country, where water was already in very short supply.
In order to find new water resources, several NGOs including OXFAM and UNHCR (UN Refugee Agency) have been working in partnership with Iris Instruments, a French company which manufactures equipment and provides training.
The main method used has been that of magnetic resonance imaging: by sending electric currents into the ground, it makes it possible to detect hydrogen atoms and determine the quantity of water present in the rock, provided the water is less than 150 m deep, which was the case in Chad.
Several aquifers were thus found around Iriba.
A complete magnetic resonance kit weighs around 350 Kg and costs about €140,000.