Banana Pancakes Recipe

Banana Pancakes

Banana Pancakes

Banana Pancakes Recipe

Banana Pancakes is an American breakfast recipe, which is sure to be loved by people of all age groups. This pancake recipe is delicious as well as healthy. Bananas are rich in potassium and helps in lowering the blood pressure. If you’re bored of having those regular toasted bread slices for breakfast and wish to try something innovative, scrumptious yet healthy at the same time, then go for this Banana pancake recipe. Here’s how you can prepare this easy recipe at home by following a few simple steps given below. Pancake makes for a perfect breakfast recipe, and this recipe can be tweaked as per taste preferences. The best thing about this recipe is that it is satiating as well as delicious. You can add your own twist to this pancake recipe, if your like the sweet and slightly tangy taste of cranberries, blueberries or raisins, you can add some finely chopped berries or raisins to the batter and whisk it well, this will definitely accentuate the taste of this sweet delicacy.This is a perfect recipe for lazy afternoons and Sunday brunches, when you don’t feel like putting in much efforts to cook an elaborate meal. It tastes the best when served with maple syrup or caramel syrup. If you’re a chocolate lover, then you can also customize this recipe a bit by topping this quick pancake recipe with chocolate ganache. You can also serve this recipe with fresh strawberry or fruit jams. This is one such recipe that you can pack for road trips, picnics, office parties. To make it more delicious you can prepare this dish with a spoon of butter, this will add on to the taste and aroma. You can also add two drops of vanilla essence to this recipe to make it more flavoursome. Serve this Banana Pancake recipe to your family and friends on get-togethers, pot lucks or even kitty parties and earn all the appreciation for yourself. Try this easy recipe at home for kids and they will shower you with tons of praises and compliments.

For The Main Dish

How to make Banana Pancakes

  • banana-pic
    Step 1

    To prepare this easy banana pancake recipe, take a bowl and peel and mash the bananas in it using the back of a spoon or a fork. Then, take another bowl and break the egg. Whisk well until it gets frothy.

  • pancake
    Step 2

    Combine the all purpose flour with baking powder and salt in a large bowl. Then add the beaten egg mixture, oil, milk and coconut milk and add the mashed bananas. Mix all the ingredients properly so that a dosa-like batter consistency is attained.

  • image (6)
    Step 3

    Then heat a tawa over medium flame and pour a small ladleful of the batter. Spread the batter evenly in a circular motion to make a thick pancake. Apply oil around the edges of the pancake and cook on both sides until golden brown. Once done, remove from the tawa and serve with toppings of your choice.

MBA COLLEGES IN CHENNAI

MBA COLLEGES IN CHENNAI

Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras.

Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli 16  Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai 4

Bharathidasan Institute of Management, Tiruchirapalli

Department of Management Studies, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirapalli

Thiagarajar School of Management, Thirupparankundram

Compare VIT Business School, Vellore 29 226.49

PSG Institute of Management, Coimbatore 32

SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Chennai

Amrita School of Business, Coimbatore – – AAA

Crescent School of Business, Chennai – – AAA

Easwari Engineering College, Chennai – – AAA 2017

Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science, Chennai – – AAA 2017

Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore – –

Karunya School of Management,

KCT Business School, Coimbatore –

Kongu Engineering College, Erode

Compare KV Institute of Management and Information Studies, Coimbatore – –

Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi – – A

Vaishnav College for Women, Chennai – – AAA 2017

Sairam Institute of Management Studies, Chennai – – AAA 2017 Rating: AAA Private

Compare Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International School of Textile Management, Coimbatore – –

Compare SASTRA University, Thanjavur – – AAA

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Saveetha School of Management, Chennai – – AAA Private NA Follow Compare Sri Krishna College of

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SSN School of Management, Kalavakkam – – AAA 2017 Rating: AAA Private User Rating: 3.2 / 5 TANCET MBA Follow

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Rahul ji and Mamtha JI may soon reach Tuticorin

Rahul ji and Mamtha JI may soon reach Tuticorin to look deep in to the matter, Tuticorin Sterlite matter now gains national attention   more  were been seriously injured, 12+  are killed many of the  Tamils are seeking support from all party in india to proceed this Matter in honourable supereme court! this type of killing  are never been held in india ………..

பெங்களூரில் மமதா இந்த நிலையில் பெங்களூரில் இன்று குமாரசாமி பதவியேற்பு விழா முடிந்த பிறகு, பெங்களூரில் இருந்து மமதா பானர்ஜி தூத்துக்குடி வர வாய்ப்புள்ளதாக கூறப்படுகிறது. கமல் – ஸ்டாலின் – திருமா ஏற்கனவே திமுக செயல் தலைவர் மு.க.ஸ்டாலின், காங்கிரஸ் தலைவர் திருநாவுக்கரசர், விடுதலை சிறுத்தைகள் கட்சி தலைவர் திருமாவளவன், மக்கள் நீதி மய்யம் கட்சி தலைவர் கமல்ஹாசன் உள்ளிட்ட பல்வேறு தலைவர்களும் தூத்துக்குடி வந்து பாதிக்கப்பட்டவர்களுக்கு ஆறுதல் கூறினர். ராகுலும் வரலாம் மமதா வருகை தந்தால் தொடர்ந்து ராகுல் காந்தி உள்ளிட்டோரும் வருவார்கள் என்று எதிர்பார்க்கப்படுகிறது. இதனால் தேசிய அளவில் தூத்துக்குடி பயங்கரம் கவனம் ஈர்க்க ஆரம்பித்துள்ளது. தேசிய அளவில் தற்போது தூத்துக்குடி விவகாரமும் பெரிதாக பேசப்பட ஆரம்பித்துள்ளதும் குறிப்பிடத்தக்கது.

 

Rahul ji and Mamtha JI may soon reach Tuticorin/Rahul ji and Mamtha JI may soon reach Tuticorin /Rahul ji and Mamtha JI may soon reach Tuticorin

Ginger lemonade

 

 

Ginger lemonade


Looking for a drink to beat the scorching heat of the summers? If yes, then this Ginger Lemonade will not only do the trick but will also keep you hydrated throughout the day as well! Prepared using soda, ginger powder, sugar syrup, fresh lemons, black salt and ice cubes, this beverage recipe is the perfect welcome drink and can get any party started. Top up this mocktail recipe with ice cubes and a fresh piece of ginger to enhance its flavour and serve on occasions like kitty parties, game nights and family get-togethers. The sweet and sour flavours of this lemonade recipe will surely win over everyone and will quench their thirst during the heat wave. So, gather all the ingredients and try this easy beverage right away!

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Ingredients of Ginger Lemonade
4 lemon
90 gm ginger powder
6 ice cubes
1 piece ginger
1/2 teaspoon black salt
30 ml sugar syrup
soda as required
3 lemon wedges
How to make Ginger Lemonade
Step 1
To prepare this mocktail recipe, take a shaker and add freshly squeezed lemon juice, ginger powder, sugar syrup an ginger piece. Shake the ingredients well.

Step 2
Once done, transfer the mixture in a glass. Add ice cubes to it and top it up with soda. Gently stir with a stirrer. Garnish with ginger slices and lemon wedges. Serve immediately to enjoy!

Piyush Goyal to be finance minister

Piyush Goyal to be finance minister

Piyush Vedprakash Goyal is an Indian politician. He is currently serving as the Minister of Railways and Coal in the Government of India. He has been elevated to Cabinet minister on 3 September 2017.
Born: 13 June 1964 (age 53 years), Mumbai
Spouse: Seema Goyal
Constituency: Maharashtra
Office: Minister of Railways of India since 2017
Education: Don Bosco High School, Matunga, University of Mumbai, Government Law College, Mumbai
Parents: Ved Prakash Goyal, Chandrakanta Goyal

In a major cabinet reshuffle on Monday, union railway minister Piyush Goyal was given additional charge of the finance ministry till Arun Jaitley recovers from a kidney transplant surgery.

MoS (youth affairs and sports) Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore will be the new I&B minister in place of Smriti Irani, who has been shifted back to the textile ministry.

Goyal is also the power minister.

Jaitley underwent a successful kidney transplant at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) today and is stable after the over four-hour-long surgery, hospital authorities said. Jaitley, 65, who has been mostly working from home since early April, was admitted to the hospital on Saturday.

Piyush Goyal to be finance minister/Piyush Goyal to be finance minister/Piyush Goyal to be finance minister

Train tickets shall be booked oneyear in advance

Lakhs of domestic passengers have been booking train tickets online through the website of IRCTC (Indian Railways Catering and Tourism Corporation).
Further, there has been a remarkable annual growth in the number of travelers abroad visiting India. Giving due consideration to the growing foreign tourists, IRCTC has initiated a number of activities to attract the foreign tourists. Presently, the foreign passengers are allowed to make train ticket bookings 120 days in advance. Now, the railways` ministry has decided to extend this train booking facility for the foreign travelers that they can book train tickets 1 year in advance.

 

An official from IRCTC explained regarding this:

 

All the foreign travelers/tourists can now book train tickets in Indian Railways 1 year in advance. The booking has to be registered with the details of the passport number, international mobile phone number, etc.In case of cancellation of the bookings, only 50% will be refunded. The foreign travelers need to keep their original passports and visas. Otherwise, they will be penalized.

Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person

Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person

Don’t you think it’s strange that a lot of world leaders share the same habits? Many world leaders share the same history, same morning routine, same working habits and it is not something they have been taught, but things they have embraced over time and learnt from each other. So do you really know what habits, childhood traits or practices differentiates a successful person from an unsuccessful person? Research conducted by Stanford psychologist Carol Dweck reveals a successful individual’s intellectual acuity.

1. Successful people focus on problem-solving If you spot a person who’s always focusing on solving a problem rather than wondering why it arose in the first place, watch out for them. These people are born leaders and mentors. They see every problem as a challenge that they have to tackle. These people are not afraid of going out of their comfort zone, unlike those who wait for others to take action and pass on things.

2. Successful people don’t avoid challenges “Embracing change is one of the hardest things a person can do”, yet most successful people have a history of doing just that. They are comfortable taking risks and even view their failures with a positive frame of mind. They want to explore opportunities to grow and advance their careers and bring more opportunities to the table.

3. Successful people dedicate time to self-improvement It’s impossible to constantly be at the top without growing, a fact everyone who made it is well aware of, making self-improvement crucial for survival. As a matter of fact, almost everyone who’s successful dedicates time to reading, learning, improving, and working on a new skill that will keep them ahead of everyone. According to Dweck, there are only two ways in which you can describe a person’s behavioural trait – fixed and growth mindsets. Further with the help of Nigel Holmes, the traits have been explained. Dweck claims that a person with a fixed mindset sees himself with static traits and a deterministic outlook. This person sees himself as an already completed task, not open to changes or challenges. As a result, they avoid grasping new things. However, the person with a growth mindset sees failure as an opportunity and work on it.

4. Successful people see failure as an opportunity In an exercise conducted by Dweck, a group of 128 children aged between 10-11 were divided into two groups. Now one group was chosen based on their ability to work hard while the other based on their intelligence. When given hard problems to solve, the former performed repeatedly well as opposed to the latter. Dweck claims that people who believe in their hard work and are aware of their capabilities do not give up easily in situations and see every failure as an opportunity to perform better. DON’T MISS 5. Successful people believe in themselves and don’t give up Dweck further writes that “the view you adopt for yourself profoundly affects the way you lead your life. It can determine whether you become the person you want to be and whether you commit to and accomplish the things you value.” That said, successful people don’t cloak themselves with self-doubt after every failed opportunity. The only difference between them and those who don’t succeed is that successful people don’t give up.

6. Successful people have a strong work ethic Taking further reference from the group of 128 kids, hardworking kids showed a strong work ethic as opposed to those who thought that they were hard working.

6)People with fixed mindsets think that they have reached their goal and that they need no improvement. But those who have a growth mindset have a strong work ethic and are always in a space where they want to learn.

7. Successful people don’t seek approbation Most successful people believe in themselves and do not seek approbation from the outside world. If they think that their passion is driven enough to take them places, they revel in it. Those who seek everyone’s approval often fall prey to what others think of them.

8. Successful people have a sense of ownership Taking responsibility and accountability for their actions comes naturally to successful people. They do not try to cover up their mistakes. Instead, they try to learn from others and their own failings. Successful people will not make the same mistake twice.

9. Successful people focus on goals and people equally Someone said that good leaders compromise numbers for people and bad leaders compromise people for numbers, but in retrospect, successful people who are also everlasting leaders do not compromise on anything – they focus on their goals and people equally. To keep themselves motivated, successful people set goals for themselves and others.

10. Successful people are always growing Having a very strong sense of self-awareness, successful people know that to be able to look life squarely in the eye they have to be prepared for everything that comes their way. Therefore, either through reading or podcasts, they are always preparing themselves for challenges and unforeseeable battles.

11. Successful people value their time Time indeed is the most valuable asset that successful people have – to do things in time, to do it before others do, make the most of given time etc. They value their time more than their money.

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Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person/Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person /Eleven Traits Of a Successful Person

unknown facts about Chocolates

unknown facts about Chocolates
How far can chocolates invite your attention? Got immense love towards binging on chocolates? Not just kids, even adults of all age groups have special love for chocolates. It is however considered as one of the sinful desserts! What we fail to notice is that there are several vital nutrients contained in chocolates that can aid you in keeping your lifestyle healthy.

When you’re stressed out, munching a chocolate can instantly awaken your mood. Perhaps, you can try it during your next premenstrual syndrome.

To believe in chocolates, you should first of all break all the myths revolving around. So, here are the myths you got to stay away from!

The first myth is that it has no health benefit at all!

Chocolates are rich in antioxidants, zinc and magnesium. They also contain high levels of calcium, phosphate and protein that helps in bringing down resistance towards insulin. There is very high amount of antioxidants in dark chocolate. You can keep your blood pressure under control by eating them.

The second myth is that it is very high caffeine content

You can elevate your mood by eating chocolates! However, they actually do not contain very high levels of caffeine. There is 6g of caffeine in a chocolate bar or a glass full of chocolate milk. This is more or less the same as the quantity present in decaffeinated coffee.

The third myth is that Chocolates can lead to acne

Of course, your skin health largely relies on what you eat. Due to the fat content present in chocolates, you may develop acne, but there is very little chance for it. When you take up more of oily foods, it can lead to acne.

The fourth myth is that Chocolates lead to weight gain

Your weight gain is not just because of chocolates! Your health doesn’t get hit by chocolate consumption. When you consume excessive processed foods, it would result in weight gain.

Fifth myth is that you may develop cavities

Believe that chocolates don’t solely cause cavities! Cavities develop when your mouth has cavities. When the sugar or starch in body gets metabolized by bacteria in your mouth and produces acid, it leads to cavities. The acid then accumulates on tooth enamel thus causing cavity.

Chocolates contain very high saturated fat

There is very high level of s stearic acid present in milk chocolate. This in no way surges cholesterol level in your body. According to studies, you can have chocolate bar rather than carbohydrate-rich food that would lead to uptick in cholesterol level.

Seventh myth is that chocolates lead to headache

First of all, chocolate is never the cause for migraine or headache. There are a lot of studies that claim that there is absolutely no link between chocolates and headaches. However, remember that if you are already prone to headache, with no munching of even a piece of chocolate, the pain may get triggered.

The eighth myth is that white chocolate is also a chocolate

Know that white chocolates are made up of cocoa butter, vanilla and milk solids. They are not chocolates in real. Better said is that they are not chocolates at all as they don’t contain cocoa powder.

The night myth is that chocolates don’t have any nutritive value

There is very high polyphenol content in chocolates. Polyphenols are antioxidants present in red wine. These are known for reducing the risk of coronary heart disease. There is very high antioxidant content in dark chocolates.

The last myth is that diabetics shouldn’t near chocolates

It is definitely not that diabetics should say no to chocolates whenever they are offered one! They have very low glycemic index and hence, chocolates help in improving insulin sensitivity. The endothelial dysfunction gets improved with chocolate consumption.

 

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Indian Turmeric is most effcetive in easing injuries says study

 

 

A new study conducted by researchers at the Milan-based pharmaceutical company Velleja Research has suggested that turmeric is more effective than popular painkillers at easing the agony of sports injuries. The findings were published in the European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences journal.

The study found that after less than three weeks, taking a key component of the Indian staple spice, known as curcumin, eases injured rugby players` discomfort just as much paracetamol or ibuprofen, but without their side effects.

Say the researchers, The study suggests that naturally-derived, curcumin-based product could represent a promising safe, analgesic remedy in painful osteo-muscular conditions associated with intense, high impact, physical activities. We believe that curcumin may also benefit sufferers of inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis patients, without causing the complications associated with many existing treatments.

The researchers analysed 50 rugby players from the Italian premier Piacenza club south of Milan who was suffering bone or muscle problems as a result of incidents, such as repeated tackling. Half of the study`s participants were given the one gram curcumin-extract tablet Algocur, which is known as Turmeric+ in the UK, twice a day for up to 10 days. The remainder took painkillers.

Digital Marketing Company in dindigul

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Digital Marketing Channel Advertisement in india

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Digital Marketing in Theni

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DigitalTout.com Is a Entity of   leading  Private Limited Company Engaged in  digital marketing, company with result driven approach. we believe in Result First – Pay Later digital marketing. The company offers e-automate, it is a leading digital marketing company with result driven approach, which enables to manage common business processes, such as accounting, Social Media Optimization, contract processing, Digital market services, an add-on product for e-automate, which digitalTout.com connects dealers to digital marketing in real-time and automatically generates purchase market as selections are companies.

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How To list a MSME in Indian Stock Exchange

How To list a MSME in Indian Stock Exchange

With the advent of planned economy in 1951, special role was earmarked for SMEs, which was given a fillip by the subsequent progressive industrial policies. The Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 provided for facilitating the promotion and development and enhancing the competitiveness of MSMEs (commonly referred to as SMEs) and for the related matters. A big leap for SMEs was witnessed in 2010, with “The Prime Minister’s Task Force” recommending setting up of dedicated stock exchange/ platform for SMEs. SEBI, through its circular dated May 18, 2010, laid down framework for setting up a stock exchange/ trading platform dedicated to SMEs.
SME Exchange
An SME Exchange is a stock exchange dedicated for trading the shares / securities of SMEs who otherwise find it difficult to get listed on the Main Board. The concept originated from the difficulties faced by SMEs in gaining visibility and attracting sufficient trading volumes when listed along with
other stocks on the Main Board of stock exchanges. World over, dedicated SME trading platforms or exchanges are prevalent, which are known by different names such as ‘Alternate Investment markets’ or ‘growth enterprises market’, ‘SME Board’ etc. Some of the known
markets for SMEs are AIM (Alternate Investment Market) in UK, TSX Ventures in Canada, GEM (Growth Enterprise Market) in Hong Kong, MOTHERS (Market of the high-growth and emerging stocks) in Japan, Catalist in Singapore and the latest initiative in China – Chinext. As a matter of fact, NASDAQ also started as an SME exchange.
In India, “SME Exchange” is defined in Chapter XB of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Issue Of Capital And Disclosure Requirements) Regulations as a trading platform of a recognized stock exchange or a dedicated exchange permitted by SEBI to list the securities issued in accordance with Chapter XA of SEBI (ICDR) Regulations and this excludes the Main Board (which is in turn is defined as a recognized stock exchange having nationwide trading terminals, other than SME exchange).
To be listed on the SME Exchange, the post-issue paid up capital of the company should not exceed INR 25 Crore. This means that the SME Exchange is not limited to the Small and Medium Scale enterprises which are defined under “The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006” as enterprises where the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed INR 10 Crore. As of now, to get listed on the Main Board of National Stock Exchange (NSE), the minimum paid up capital required is INR 10 Crore and that of Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is INR 3 Crore. Hence, those companies with paid up capital between INR 10 Crore to INR 25 Crore has the option of migrating from SME Exchange to the Main Board or vice versa. The companies listed on the SME exchange are allowed to migrate to the Main Board as and when they meet the listing requirements of the Main Board and there shall be compulsory migration of SMEs from the SME exchange, in case their post issue paid up capital exceeds INR 25 Crore. click here to register your business 
BSE, as an Exchange, is the first-one to seize the initiative followed by NSE, both of them have come up with their SME Exchanges to leverage their respective trading platforms developed over the period.
1) Desired issue size :
 < 50 Lacks >= 50 Lacks
2) Post issue face value capital :
 < 1 Crore Between Rs 1 Crore to Rs 25 Crore > Rs 25 Crore
3) Net Tangible assets :
 < 1 Crore >= 1 Crore
4) Track record of distributable profits for at least 2 years out of preceding 3 completed financial years :
 Yes No
5) Existing Networth (excluding revaluation reserves) :
 < 1 Crore Between Rs 1 Crore to Rs 3 Crore > = Rs 3 Cr
6) Track record of at least 3 years for the Company :
 Yes No
7) Positive cash accruals (EBDT) from operations for at least 2 preceding financial years :
 Yes No
8) Positive net worth for at least 2 preceding financial years : click here to register your business 
 Yes No
Need for SME Exchange
Despite the benefits associated with public listing, the SMEs were not able to access the capital markets through extant Stock Exchanges due to several factors such as stringent regulatory, disclosure and financial requirements and the like. The creation of a separate stock exchange for SMEs has been on the policy makers’ agenda for quite some time, and finally in March, 2012, SME Exchange was launched. A dedicated stock exchange for SMEs would allow them accessing capital markets easily, quickly and at lesser costs.
The need of a dedicated SME Exchange can be attributed to several factors including the following  click here to register your business
A dedicated SME exchange will provide SMEs with equity financing opportunities to grow their business – from expansion to acquisitions Listing the company would facilitate expansion of the investors base, which in turn help company get secondary market for equity financing, including private placement. With the availability of equity financing options, the debt burden can be set lower resulting in a healthier balance sheet and lowered financing cost Company’s visibility will improve with the coverage from analysts and media that can add to the credence and image of the SME leading to benchmarking its fair value The listing would result in an increased participation by venture capital players as they would have a ready, transparent and tax-efficient exit route.Listing would add value to the companies who wish to make use of ESOPs and other stock base compensation plans as a tool to reward and retain their employees. It is expected to encourage innovation and entrepreneurial spirit, much required from the perspective of Indian national economy.Capital Market allows distribution of risk efficiently by transferring risk to those who are best able to bear it. SME sector will grow better on two pillars of Financial system, i.e., Banking for debt capital and Capital Market for equity capital.
Benefits of SME Listing
SEBI Norms for Listing
In order to lay down the policy for issue, listing and trading of securities to be issued by SMEs, necessary amendments have been made in the SEBI ICDR Regulations and consequent amendments have been made into various other regulations viz. :
SEBI (Merchant Bankers) Regulations 1992 SEBI (Foreign Institutional Investors) Regulations, 1995 SEBI (Venture Capital Funds) Regulations, 1996 SEBI (Substantial Acquisition of Shares and Takeovers) Regulations and SEBI (Stock Brokers and Sub-Brokers) Regulations, 1992
SEBI has, from time to time, issued the circulars and guidelines for setting up of the exchange for SMEs. SEBI vide “ICDR Third Amendment Regulations” 2010 dated 13th April, 2010, inserted a new Chapter XB under the head “Issue of Specified Securities by Small and Medium Enterprises”. A further circular was also issued on 18th May, 2010 after taking into account the suggestions from market participants for the SME platform. The necessary provisions for listing of specified securities under the SME Platform vide the above regulations and circulars are enumerated in brief:
The post issue face value capital should not exceed INR Twenty Five Crores (INR 25 Crore).The minimum application and trading lot size shall not be less than INR 1,00,000/- The existing members of stock exchanges (stock brokers) would be eligible to participate in SME Platform.The issues shall be 100% underwritten and merchant bankers shall underwrite 15% in their own account.
Besides, SEBI has compulsorily mandated market making for all scrips listed and traded on SME Platform. The obligations of market making are as follows:
The merchant bankers to the issue will undertake market making through a stock broker who is registered as market maker with the SME Platform.The merchant bankers shall be responsible for market making for a minimum period of 3 years.The market makers are required to provide two way quotes for 75% of the time in a day. The same shall be monitored by the exchange. There will not be more than 5 market makers for a scrip. Market makers will compete with other market makers for better price discovery. The exchange shall prescribe the minimum spread between the bid and ask price. During the compulsory market making period, the promoter holding shall not be eligible for the offering to market makers. Market Maker shall be allowed to de-register by giving one month notice to the exchange. Trading system may be either order driven or quote driven.
The application and trading lot size is being kept at INR 1,00,000/- so as to curtail the exposure of retail investors. It has also been stated that the minimum depth shall be of one lakh rupees and at any point of time it cannot go below that amount. The investors holding with value less than INR 1,00,000/- shall be allowed to offer their holding to the market maker in one lot. However, in functionality the market lot will be subject to revival after a stipulated time.
Further, the provisions of SEBI ICDR Regulations apply to SME IPO as well, unless any particular provision is specifically exempted.
Key Benefits
 Funding Convenience
• Access to capital and financing opportunities :
Going public provides SMEs with equity financing opportunities to grow their business from operations to expansion to inorganic acquisitions. Access to equity financing lowers the debt burden leading to lower financing costs and healthier balance sheets. The continuing requirement for adhering to stock market rules for the issuers lowers the ongoing information and monitoring costs for the banks.
• M&A currency :
Listed shares act as a currency, esp. for inorganic business acquisition transactions. Listed shares can be utilized as an acquisition currency, as an alternative to cash consideration, to acquire existing businesses / assets. Using shares as a currency can be a tax efficient and cost effective vehicle to finance an acquisition transaction.
• Premium Valuation :
Valuation of a company is determined by various factors, one of which is class of company – listed or closely-held. The value discounting by investors of an unlisted entity can be avoided, if the shares are listed on a nation-wide exchange platform including SME Exchange.
• Efficient Risk Distribution for Investors :
It is expected that the development of capital markets helps distribute risk efficiently by transfer of risk to those best able to bear it. Capital is a precious resource. When one can afford, he can invest it; when one needs it back, he can exit. This in-built mechanism of risk-transfer, in turn, lends to sustainability to market forces. Thus capital markets for SMEs are also expected to ensure that capital flows to its best uses and even the riskier activities with higher payoffs could be funded.
• Entry & Exit Platforms for PE / Other Investors :
The presence of a market-driven transparent trading platform provides with a ready and easy entry and exit for strategic investors. Listing not only offers the investors flexibility for entry and exit, but also the confidence required for any such transaction.
 Tax Benefits
Income- tax Act offers immense benefits to companies if their shares are listed on recognized stock exchanges including SME Exchange. Tax benefits, often, turns out to be one of prominent factors for listing :
• No Long-term Capital Gains Tax
Transfer of unlisted shares attracts long term capital gains tax of 20% and short term capital gains of up to 30% (depending upon an assessee’s income slab and applicable tax rate). Whereas in case of listed shares, tax on long term capital gains is nil and short term capital gains is 15%, provided the transaction has been subjected to securities transaction tax (STT). This preferential tax treatment on transfer of listed shares is also available to shares listed on SME Exchange. Listing on SME Exchange is a valid tax-planning tool and could, thus, lead to enormous tax saving for SME entrepreneurs / investors.
 • No tax on fresh equity infusion in the company
Recently the Finance Act, 2012 imposed a tax liability on fresh issuance of equity shares by an unlisted company to investors other than “Registered Venture Fund”, if the issuance is made at a value more than the fair value. This could make SMEs subject to heavy tax outgo, since they often go for fund raising through equity issuance to investors. Such a tax liability, however, does not attract if the shares of the company are listed on recognize stock exchanges, including SME Exchange.
• No tax on distressed business purchase
Income-tax Act levies a tax inter alia on the buyer of shares of an unlisted company, if the transaction is conducted at a value less than its book value. Hence acquisition of distressed assets could attract heavy tax. Such a tax liability, however, does not attract if the shares of the company are listed on recognize stock exchanges, including SME Exchange.
• Efficient Risk Distribution for Investors :
It is expected that the development of capital markets helps distribute risk efficiently by transfer of risk to those best able to bear it. Capital is a precious resource. When one can afford, he can invest it; when one needs it back, he can exit. This in-built mechanism of risk-transfer, in turn, lends to sustainability to market forces. Thus capital markets for SMEs are also expected to ensure that capital flows to its best uses and even the riskier activities with higher payoffs could be funded.
• Entry & Exit Platforms for PE / Other Investors :
The presence of a market-driven transparent trading platform provides with a ready and easy entry and exit for strategic investors. Listing not only offers the investors flexibility for entry and exit, but also the confidence required for any such transaction.
 Other Benefits
• Visibility – Profile Building
Going for a public issue is most likely to enhance the company’s visibility. Greater public awareness gained through media coverage, and research coverage by sector investment analysts provide the SMEs with greater visibility and help brand building which otherwise may remain a dream especially for SMEs.
• Unlocking / Benchmarking Value
The fair value of an unlisted company may not be benchmarked appropriately, in absence of a market-driven mechanism. The companies listed on a stock exchange are traded and the market forces are expected to establish their fair value or near-fair value. This leads to unlocking or benchmarking of fair value of the SME businesses.
• Incentive Mechanism for Employees
The employees of an SME can participate in the ownership and benefit from being a shareholder. This can serve to ensure stronger employee commitment to the company’s performance and success. ESOPs and any other share-based compensation plan of listed company have an immediate and tangible value to employees. This, in turn, serves as a talent retention tool.
• Benefit for Companies in Supply Chain
The companies in supply chain in the forward or backward integration may take strategic stake as part of growth & expansion. Also, companies in the same business line planning to expand the operations may take a stake in listed SMEs.
• Governance – Internal Systems
Though the requirements for a company listed on SME Exchange are not as stringent as that for Main Board listed companies, nevertheless SME listing ensures that the company has drawn up the internal control systems and set up minimum required framework of corporate governance. This, in turn, lends sustainability to the business.

Eligibility Criteria
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Besides, SEBI norms, the stock exchanges have also prescribed eligibility criteria for listing on their respective SME Exchange:
Eligibility Criteria for BSE SME
BSE SME Exchange stipulates the following eligibility criteria for an applicant desired of getting listed on BSE SME Exchange :
Net Tangible assets of at least INR 1 crore as per the latest audited financial results. Net-worth (excluding revaluation reserves) of at least INR 1 crore as per the latest audited financial results. Track record of distributable profits (excluding extra-ordinary income) in terms of section 205 of Companies Act, 1956 for at least two years out of immediately preceding three financial years, with each financial year being a period of at least 12 months. Otherwise, the net-worth shall be at least INR 3 Crore. Other Requirements
• The post-issue paid up capital of the company shall be at least INR 1 crore.
• The company shall mandatorily facilitate trading in DEMAT securities and enter into an agreement with both the depositories.
• The company shall mandatorily have a website.
• Certificate from the applicant company / promoting companies stating the following : – The Company has not been referred to the Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR), although the Companies which are out of BIFR are allowed. – There is no winding up petition against the company that has been accepted by a court.
In addition to the above requirements, a visit to the company’s site will be undertaken by the Exchange before granting of approval to use the name of the exchange in the offer document. It shall also be desirable for the Company to file a compliance certificate by a Practicing Company Secretary as per the guidance note issued by the Institute of Company Secretaries of India as an additional eligibility criteria issued by BSE through its circular dated 26-11-2012. Promoters will mandatorily be required to attend an interview with the Listing Advisory Committee. Migration from BSE SME Exchange to the main Board of BSE:
Eligibility Criteria for NSE Emerge
NSE Emerge stipulates the following eligibility criteria for an applicant desired of getting listed on NSE Emerge platform :
The post issue paid up capital of the company (face value) shall not be more than INR 25 crore.. The company should have track record of at least 3 years. The company should have positive cash accruals (earnings before depreciation and tax) from operations for at least 2 financial years preceding the application and its net-worth should be positive.The applicant Company has not been referred to Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction (BIFR). No petition for winding up is admitted by a Court of competent jurisdiction against the applicant Company. No material regulatory or disciplinary action by a stock exchange or regulatory authority in the past three years against the applicant company. The following matters should be disclosed in the offer document:
• Any material regulatory or disciplinary action by a stock exchange or regulatory authority in the past one year in respect of promoters/promoting company(ies), group companies, companies promoted by the promoters/promoting company(ies) of the applicant company.
• Defaults in respect of payment of interest and/or principal to the debenture/bond/fixed deposit holders, banks, FIs by the applicant, promoters/promoting company(ies), group companies, companies promoted by the promoters/promoting company(ies) during the past three years. An auditor’s certificate shall also be provided by the issuer to the exchange, in this regard.
• The applicant, promoters/promoting company(ies), group companies, companies promoted by the promoters/promoting company(ies) litigation record, the nature of litigation and status of litigation.
• In respect of the track record of the directors, the status of criminal cases filed or nature of the investigation being undertaken with regard to alleged commission of any offence by any of its directors and its effect on the business of the company, where all or any of the directors of issuer have or has been charge-sheeted with serious crimes like murder, rape, forgery, economic offences etc.
Parameters Main Board SME Exchange
Post – issue paid up capital (Face value) Not less than INR 10 crore Any amount less than INR 25 crores
Minimum number of allotees 1000 50
IPO Application Size INR 10,000 – INR 15,000 Minimum of INR  1,00,000
Observation on DRHP By SEBI By Exchange
IPO Grading Mandatory Non Mandatory
Track record Three years of track record of profitability Relaxed norms of Track record
IPO Underwriting Mandatory (however, not required where 50% of the issue offered for subscription to QIB’s) Mandatory (100% underwritten, out of which 15% compulsorily by Merchant Banker)
Time Frame for Listing 6-8 months 2-3 months
Reporting Requirements Quarterly Half Yearly
Global Comparison of SME Exchanges
Country UK Japan Singapore China
SME Exchange AIM MOTHERS CataList Chinext
Date of Induction 1995 1999 2007 2009
No. of Companies 2494 178 134 356
Market Capitalization GBP 60622 million N/A N/A RMB 2.7 trillion(Dec 2011)
Average Monthly Turnover GBP 3410.7 million 2000 million Yen N/A 16,830 million Yuan
Relative Main Board London Stock Exchange NIKKEI SGX Shanghai Stock Exchange

Leading MSME Directory in India

Leading MSME Directory in India

Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) are the backbone of a nation’s economy. Like any other major economy, India too enjoys its fair share of SMEs which constitute bulk of the industrial base, also contributing significantly to the exports and
.
SME segment has been a key engine of growth, employment, wealth distribution and effective mobilization of resources (both capital and skills) in India. Statistically, SME segment contributes to 45% of the manufactured output, 40% of exports, and is among the largest generator of employment in the Indian economy. Today, Indian SMEs operate in sectors ranging from traditional to the most modern industries competing with the bests-of-the-world. SMEs in new economy sectors like IT, ITES, retailing, education, entertainment, media and the like represent the new and modern face of India. SMEs take a prominent role in social sectors as well and are known for bringing innovative business models.
With the advent of planned economy in 1951, special role was earmarked for SMEs, which was given a fillip by the subsequent progressive industrial policies. The Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act, 2006 provided for facilitating the promotion and development and enhancing the competitiveness of MSMEs (commonly referred to as SMEs) and for the related matters. A big leap for SMEs was witnessed in 2010, with “The Prime Minister’s Task Force” recommending setting up of dedicated stock exchange/ platform for SMEs. SEBI, through its circular dated May 18, 2010, laid down framework for setting up a stock exchange/ trading platform dedicated to SMEs.
SME Exchange
An SME Exchange is a stock exchange dedicated for trading the shares / securities of SMEs who otherwise find it difficult to get listed on the Main Board. The concept originated from the difficulties faced by SMEs in gaining visibility and attracting sufficient trading volumes when listed along with other stocks on the Main Board of stock exchanges. World over, dedicated SME trading platforms or exchanges are prevalent, which are known by different names such as ‘Alternate Investment markets’ or ‘growth enterprises market’, ‘SME Board’ etc. Some of the known markets for SMEs are AIM (Alternate Investment Market) in UK, TSX Ventures in Canada, GEM (Growth Enterprise Market) in Hong Kong, MOTHERS (Market of the high-growth and emerging stocks) in Japan, Catalist in Singapore and the latest initiative in China – Chinext. As a matter of fact, NASDAQ also started as an SME exchange.
In India, “SME Exchange” is defined in Chapter XB of the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Issue Of Capital And Disclosure Requirements) Regulations as a trading platform of a recognized stock exchange or a dedicated exchange permitted by SEBI to list the securities issued in accordance with Chapter XA of SEBI (ICDR) Regulations and this excludes the Main Board (which is in turn is defined as a recognized stock exchange having nationwide trading terminals, other than SME exchange).
To be listed on the SME Exchange, the post-issue paid up capital of the company should not exceed INR 25 Crore. This means that the SME Exchange is not limited to the Small and Medium Scale enterprises which are defined under “The Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006” as enterprises where the investment in plant and machinery does not exceed INR 10 Crore. As of now, to get listed on the Main Board of National Stock Exchange (NSE), the minimum paid up capital required is INR 10 Crore and that of Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) is INR 3 Crore. Hence, those companies with paid up capital between INR 10 Crore to INR 25 Crore has the option of migrating from SME Exchange to the Main Board or vice versa. The companies listed on the SME exchange are allowed to migrate to the Main Board as and when they meet the listing requirements of the Main Board and there shall be compulsory migration of SMEs from the SME exchange, in case their post issue paid up capital exceeds INR 25 Crore.
BSE, as an Exchange, is the first-one to seize the initiative followed by NSE, both of them have come up with their SME Exchanges to leverage their respective trading platforms developed over the period.

Digital Marketing Course in tamil

Digital Marketing Course in tamil

உங்கள் தொழில் டிஜிட்டல் மார்கெட்டிங்கினாள் மேன்படவேண்டும்மா? டிஜிட்டல் மார்க்கெட்டிங் வேலைவாய்ப்பை பெறுவது எப்படி?டிஜிட்டல் மார்க்கெட்டிங் தமிழில் வகுப்புகள் நடை பெற்றுக்கொண்டிக்கிறது டிஜிட்டல் மார்கெய்ட்ங் சம்பந்தமான அணைத்து வீணாக்கனுக்கும் விடை

What happens in an internet second: 54,907 Google searches, 7,252 tweets, 125,406 YouTube video views and 2,501,018 emails sent

About 46.1% of the world is online, which is about 3.4 billion peopleEvery second 729 photos to Instagram and 2,177 calls made via Skype
20,000 people on Facebook and five more open an account in one secondIn 1998, Google was only serving 10,000 search queries each day.
The internet is a hectic place and at any given moment millions of people are searching, tweeting and emailing all at once.
Internet Live Stats created a live map that shows exactly how much activity is happening around the globe –down to the second.
Every second more than 54,000 Google searchers are conducted, 7,000 some Tweets are shared and more than 2 million emails are sent -67 percent of which are deemed spam.
 
Internet Live Stats has created a live map that shows exactly how much activity is happening throughout the globe ¿down to the second. Every second more than 54,000 Google searchers are conducted, 7,000 some Tweets are shared and more than 2 million emails are sent –67 percent of them are deemed spam +6
Internet Live Stats has created a live map that shows exactly how much activity is happening throughout the globe –down to the second. Every second more than 54,000 Google searchers are conducted, 7,000 some Tweets are shared and more than 2 million emails are sent –67 percent of them are deemed spam
And at any given second there are 20,00 people on Facebook and during this time five more people open an account.
On Reddit, Alexa revealed that every second 286 votes are cast and 23 comments posted.
Google will received more than 3 billion searches, which averages to the 54,000 queries a second – that is over 90 billion each month and about 1.2 trillion a year worldwide.
Netflix reports it has 81 million users across the globe that binge some 1,450 hours of TV shows and moves each second.
And about 41 percent of its members pull something up to watch on the platform every day.
Although one second doesn’t seem like much in the real world, it means quite a lot on the internet.
About 46.1 percent of the world is online, which is about 3.4 billion people – although there are still 4 billion people without access to the internet.
But compare this number to about five years ago, when there was just 31.8 percent surfing the web in the world, and we can image how much the worldwide web is growing.
About 6,000 to 7,000 tweets are shared every second which equals to more than 350,000 every minute, 500 million per day and around 200 billion tweets every year.
The first tweet hit the internet on March 21, 2006 and it wasn’t until 2009 did the firm reach its billionth tweet.
Now it takes less than two days for one billion tweets to be sent.
On any given day, Google will received more than 3 billion searches, which averages to the 54,000 queries a second – that is over 90 billion each month and about 1.2 trillion a year worldwide.
When the search giant first debuted in 1998, it was only serving 10,000 search queries each day.
Flash-forward to 2006 and that was the amount it served in one second.

Way To reduce Your Fat Belly!

Here is a great tip to lose weight in 2018. All you need to do is tweak your diet only a bit and this one change is easy to follow and is super effective as well.

Eat five servings of veggies every day and every day here means every single day no matter what. Vegetables are low in calories and high in fibre. This keeps you fuller for longer and stops you from bingeing. Also, vegetables are packed with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. When you replace your other meals with vegetables you intake fewer calories without missing the feeling of fullness.
So how does this benefit you? Not only the fiber in the veggies makes you feel fuller for longer but according to studies, every gram of fiber we eat essentially cancels out 7 calories. Fiber-rich diet is also linked with less belly fat and regulating blood sugar.
A study was conducted where people were divided into two groups. People of both the groups ate the same number of calories but the people who had more plant food had lower BMI, slimmer waist and less inflammation. Eating more veggies every day gives you protection against many common chronic diseases and a healthier gut microbe which in turn is related to a stronger immunity. According to a study conducted at St. Andrews University, people who increased their intake of veggies were rated as more attractive than those who did not.

Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul

 Best Digital Marketing Training In Dindigul
Technology has changed the way we work and live. The combined powers of digital, social, mobile, analytics and cloud technologies have empowered both consumers and companies to communicate like never before.
Today, modern multichannel customers have set the bar so high in terms of their expectations from brands, that competing- and winning- in today’s market requires exceeding expectations and delivering great customer experiences.
This is why we have designed on-demand Customized Corporate Training Solutions in Digital Marketing to provide intensive support for marketing teams, instantly upgrading their skill sets on digital.
COURSE OVERVIEW
Our custom trainings are suitable for teams of every scale of business. Whether you are a Startup, Medium or Large enterprise, we can custom-design a Program based on your unique requirements.
We have already trained some of the world’s most well known digital and traditional brands across Marketing, Sales, Social media, Web Analytics and Online CRM.
We have trained at all functional levels, from the beginner level executives to the CXO level strategy makers.
Here are ways in which we can grow your online marketing ROI:
Expert-led Corporate Digital Marketing Training
– You Contact us 730577703 letting us know what you need. Our Trainers are Certified inGoogle and they are also Certified in UGC Conducted SET Exams,click here to know about the Certificates
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 Online Reputation Management (ORM)
Personal Online Branding for Management
How to deal with negative comments online
Daily Alerts & Actions for Management
: Web Analytics (Google Analytics Framework ) – Basic & Advanced Workshop
Google Analytics Setup.
Set-up Conversion Funnels
In-Depth understanding of web traffic
KPI for Web marketing teams
Analysis Framework for Management
Module 8: Social Media Marketing – Basic and Advanced Workshop
Facebook Page Management
Facebook Engagement Campaigns
Integrating SEO & Social Media Strategies
Remarketing on Social Media
You Tube SMO Strategy
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Integrating Social Media Platforms
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– For an ongoing, specialised digital consultancy support by our experts, you can choose to have us as your Virtual Chief Digital Officer (CDO).
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MODULES & TOPICS COVERED
Digital Tout corporate training program is customized to fit the requirements of your organization, and be relevant cross departments. Our training programs have assisted individuals from various functions:
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ)
1. Where will the traning take place?
As a part of Bespoke Pratictioner Led Training, Leading Industry practitioners, who bring their up to date experience would either deliver customised digital marketing trainings at Your Place (Bespoke training delivered at your premises) or at Our Place (State of the art Education Centre)
2. What will be the duration of training programs?
We can design workshops as per the organizations needs. Currently our modules can be delivered in:
1 Day Training Program to 5 Days Training Program
3. What all Modules are covered in the training programs?
Though the modules would be customized based on your requirement but most of our corporate clients opt for following modules:
Module 1: Pay Per Click Advertising
Module 2: Search Engine Optimization
Module 3: Social Media Marketing
Module 4: Online Reputation Management
Module 5: Google Analytics Framework
4. What should a company expect from the training program?
Expect:
5. What is the training methodolgy adopted by DigitalTout Academy?
Our trainers shall customize the delivery methodology based on your teams understanding & your organizations requirement.
         Analysis: Audit present campaigns / account using tools.
         Workshop: Conduct activities to develop the required frameworks & strategy roadmaps for your team
         Training: Live, trainer-led classroom based training
         Consultancy: In-depth involvement in the business to form strategy.
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Digital Marketing Company in kkNagar Madurai 

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DigitalTout.com Is a Entity of   leading  Private Limited Company Engaged in  digital marketing, company with result driven approach. we believe in Result First – Pay Later digital marketing. The company offers e-automate, it is a leading digital marketing company with result driven approach, which enables to manage common business processes, such as accounting, Social Media Optimization, contract processing, Digital market services, an add-on product for e-automate, which digitalTout.com connects dealers to digital marketing in real-time and automatically generates purchase market as selections are companies.

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Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice

Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice

As of January 2017, the number across cadres is far below the mandated 27%

At a time when President Ram Nath Kovind has appointed a five-member commission to examine sub-categorisation of Other Backward Classes (OBCs) “to achieve greater social justice,” a reality check shows that representation of OBCs in the workforce in Central Government offices falls far short of achieving the 27% quota recommended by the Mandal Commission.

Data furnished under the Right to Information (RTI) Act by 24 of the 35 Union Ministries, 25 of the 37 Central departments and various constitutional bodies reveal that 24 years since the implementation of the Mandal Commission recommendations, across various groups of employees, the OBCs have not optimally benefited from it.

According to the Union Ministry for Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions, the reservation for OBCs is being implemented from September 8, 1993. Replies provided under the RTI Act by the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) show that as on January 1, 2017, only 17% of the Group A officers in the 24 Ministries belong to the OBCs. The representation among the Group B officers is even lower at 14%.

Likewise, only 11% of the Group C employees are from the OBCs and in Group D, the figure is 10%.

Incidentally, in July last year, Union Minister of State for Personnel Jitendra Singh informed the Lok Sabha that as on January 1, 2014, OBC representation in 71 Ministries/Departments was 19.28%. A reason, he cited, for the shortfall in meeting the Mandal Commission mandate was that OBC candidates appointed up to 1993 (when reservation kicked in) were not included for counting their representation. Besides, he said, there is generally a time gap between occurrence of vacancies and filling them as recruitment is a time-consuming process.

Cut to the present: in the cumulative staffing position of the 24 Ministries, 25 departments (out of 37) and eight constitutional bodies (such as the PMO, the President’s Secretariat and the ECI), which provided information under the RTI Act — 14% of Group A officers are from the OBCs. The figures for Group B, C and D employees are 15%, 17% and 18% respectively. In some cases, the under representation of OBCs is glaring. For instance, in the Cabinet Secretariat, which has 64 Group A officers, not one is from the OBCs, whereas 60 belong to the Open Competition (OC) category and four are from the Scheduled Castes.

In the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, only 25 of the 503 Group A officers belong to the OBCs.

In 2015, the representation of Group A OBC officers was only 10.71% and Group B officers 7.18% across 12 ministries, 10 departments and five constitutional bodies which furnished information under the RTI Act then. In 2013, OBCs constituted 9.43% of the Group A officers in 55 Central Government agencies.

“These figures don’t tell the entire story because among the 11 ministries which refused to provide employee data under the RTI Act this year are the Railways, Defence, Home and Finance, which are large recruiters. The bigger ministries account for 91.25% of the central government jobs. Whereas the data provided by the 24 ministries account for only 8.75% of the total jobs. If you go by the March 2011 Census of Central Government Employees, the Railways has 13,28,199 regular employees and we don’t have the community-based employee data for it,” points out Dr. E.Muralidharan, a Chennai-based activist, who filed the application under the RTI Act. In real terms, as against an estimated 31 lakh Central Government employees, the data pertains to only 2,71,375 employees, he added.

In 2015 when he had sought details of OBC employees, as many as 40 ministries and 48 departments refused to part with the information. “An Office Memorandum (O.M. -No.43011/10./2002-Estt.Res) dated December 19, 2003 issued by the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions makes it mandatory for each Ministry/Department to send a report regarding representation of SCs, STs and OBCs in services. But this is followed in breach,” rued the IIT Madras alumnus.

Dr. Muralidharan recalled that in June 2013, the Ministry of Personnel had issued a detailed memorandum (No. 36038/1(i)/2013 Estt.Res), on measures to be taken to fill up backlog vacancies reserved for SCs/STs/OBCs “at the earliest” monitored at the “highest level”.

The memorandum had identified certain reasons for non-filling up of reserved vacancies such as lack of finishing skills – English fluency or interview skills – and scarcity of qualified reserved category persons.

Among the recommendations given by the Ministry was that the Departments concerned may take a decision within six months on launching a special recruitment drive providing certain relaxations so that the vacancies may be filled up. It had further said that finishing training be imparted for reserved category candidates. Another recommendation was to constitute a committee with representations from the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Tribal Affairs, major ministries like Railways and Home Affairs to find out specific reasons for backlog in filling up of vacancies and suggest measures to enhance the employability of reserved category candidates.

“The memorandum of June 2013 directed all ministries / departments to take follow up action on the decision taken by the Government and sent quarterly progress reports on implementing the recommendations to the Ministry of Personnel,” the RTI Act applicant said.

Subsequently, the Union Minister of State for Personnel Jitendra Singh informed Parliament that based on the recommendations of a committee headed by the Secretary, Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment, time bound action plan for filling up backlog reserved vacancies was intimated to all Departments/Ministries on November 11, 2014 for filling up such vacancies by August 2016. This Action Plan included study of reasons for non-filling of backlog reserved vacancies, review of prescribed standards, if required; conducting Special Recruitment Drive and conducting pre-recruitment training programmes.

“If the Action Plan was put into motion, we wouldn’t have had the kind of poor representation for OBCs (as of January 1, 2017), as the details furnished under the RTI Act show,” contended Dr. Muralidharan.

S.K. Kharventhan, former member National Commission for Backward Classes, said among the reasons for under-representation of OBCs is non-filling of backlog vacancies and non-implementation of the communal roster system for filling vacancies. “As per Supreme Court judgment, they should follow only a post-based roster system. But in many departments only vacancy-based communal roster system is followed,” he alleged.

K. Danasekar, secretary general, All India Confederation of OBC Employees’ Welfare Associations, said, “Some two-three years ago, of the 83 Deputy Secretary level officers in Central Government only three were from OBCs and five belonged to the SC/STs.” According to him, only OBC candidates who enter government service at the age of 23 or so eventually qualify to get promoted as Deputy Secretary or Under Secretary. “Many enter the service when they are 30 and therefore retire below the rank of Deputy Secretary. That is why the OBC representation will be higher in Group C and D category of employees and not in Group A or B,” he said.

Mr. Danasekar added that in the Finance Ministry, the OBC representation in Group A is likely to be better. “Usually in the UPSC examination, many from the OBCs qualify for the Indian Revenue Service, which is lower in order of preference as opposed to the IFS, IAS and IPS,” he explained.

Courtesy –The Hindu

Despite The Above Fact Mr.Sivan achivements has Lot More to Applause!

Sivan, a space scientist from Tamil Nadu, is now Chairman of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Taking over the reins from A.S. Kiran Kumar, Sivan becomes the ninth head of the 50-year-old organisation. So here are some facts about the man of the moment:

Born to a farmer in Tarakkanvilai village of Kanyakumari, Sivan completed his schooling in Tamil medium government schools. A self-made and hard-working person, he taught himself without any guidance from family or attending tutions; yet he became the first graduate in his family.
In 1980, Sivan completed his bachelor’s course in aeronautical engineering from Madras Institute of Technology. After completing a master’s course in aerospace engineering from IISC Bengaluru, he joined the ISRO in 1982.
In ISRO, Sivan was part of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) project where he contributed significantly to the planning, designing, integration, and analysis of the mission.
In his career spanning over three decades, Sivan has worked in projects including GSLV, PSLV, and GSLV MkIII, and has been the project director of GSLV rocket.
Sivan completed his PhD from IIT Bombay in 2006 and also holds an honorary doctorate in science from Sathyabama University, which he received in 2014.
For his contribution to space research, the rocket scientist has received many awards, including the Shri Hari Om Ashram Prerit Dr Vikram Sarabhai Research Award in 1999, ISRO Merit Award in 2007, and Dr. Biren Roy Space Science Award in 2011.
Sivan is a Fellow of Indian National Academy of Engineering, Indian Systems Society for Science and Engineering, Aeronautical Society of India, and Systems Society of India. With his expertise in all areas pertaining to launching vehicles, he published a book titled Integrated Design for Space Transportation System in the year 2015.
 
Sivan was working as the director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram, before taking charge as the Chairman of ISRO. Along with being the Chairman, he has also been appointed as the Secretary of Department of Space and Chairman of the Space Commission.
In February 2017, India set a world record by launching 104 satellites with a single flight of PSLV. Sivan played a key role in setting that record.
In the first year of his three-year period of Chairmanship, two important missions for him will be the launch of Chandrayaan-II and the developmental flight of Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-MK3) in April. Apart from that, he will have to work towards designing bigger launch vehicles and reducing the cost of satellites.
Sivan’s predecessor Alur Seelin Kiran Kumar worked in the satellite payload and applications domains in his 40-year-long career in ISRO. With his expertise, Kiran made significant contributions to the design and development of Electro-Optical Imaging Sensors (for Airborne, Geostationary Orbit and Low Earth Orbit satellites).
Kiran also played an important role in developing the strategy that helped steer Mars Orbiter Spacecraft towards Mars.

Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice/ Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice / Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice / Mr.Sivan Had Proved and Reached the Pinnacle of his fame,Despite the Social Injustice /

Green Trend Madurai -Beauty Tips

முகப்பருவை குறைப்பதற்கு சாப்பிடவேண்டிய மற்றும் சாப்பிடக்கூடாத உணவுகள்

 

சில உணவுகள் முகப்பருவைச் சிறப்பாக கட்டுப்படுத்துவதாக ஆராய்ச்சிகள் தெரிவிக்கின்றன.

விற்றமின் E, அமிலங்கலந்த கொழுப்புணவுகள், மக்னீசியம்போன்ற தாதுப்புக் கள், முகப்பருவை ஏற்படுத்தும் பக்ரீரியாக்களுக்கு எதிராக போராட்டி முப்பரு ஏற்படாமல் தடுக்கின்றன..உணவுகளைப் பாதுகாப்பதற்குப் பயன்படுத்தும் பொருட்களைத்தவிர்ப்பதும், கரையக்கூடிய கொழுப்புக்கள், பூரித்த கொழுப்புக்கள் மற்றும் சீனி என்பவற்றில் காணப்படும் சத்துக்கள் முகப்பருவிற்கு எதிராகச் செயற்படுகின்றன. , எல்லோருடைய உடலும் ஒரே உணவிற்கு ஒரேமாதிரி பிரதிபலிப்பதில்லை என்பதனை நினைவில் வைத்து கொள்ளுங்கள்ஆகையால்,ஒவ்வொரு உணவாக சாப்பிட்டு அதன் தாக்கத்தைக் கவனித்து, முப்பரு ஏற்படுத்துமாயின் அந்தவகை உணவைத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளுங்கள். அத்துடன் முகப்பருக்களை அவை உடைக்குமாயின் அவற்றைச் சாப்பாட்டில் சேர்த்துக் கொள்ளலாம்.
மாசற்ற தோல் இருக்கவேண்டும் என்பதனையே ஆண்களும் பெண்களும் ஒருமித்து விரும்புகிறார்கள்.
பருக்கள் நிறைந்த முகத்துடன் ஜனங்கள் மத்தியில் உலாவுவது மிகவும் சங்கடமான விடயமாக இருக்கும்.
முகப்பருவை ஏற்படுத்துவதற்கான பலகாரணிகள் இருக்கலாம் அவற்றும் மன அழுத்தம், மற்றும் கவலை, அல்லது ஹார்மோன் ஏற்றத்தாழ்வுகள் போன்றவிடயங்கள் உண்டு.. அவைகள் உங்கள் கட்டுப்பாட்டிற்கு அப்பாற்பட்டவையாகும்.
.எனினும், சில சத்துக்கள் நிறைந்த உணவுகளைத் தொடர்ந்து உண்பதால் அவை கணிசமாக முகப்பருவைத் தடுக்க உதவும் என்று ஆராய்ச்சியா ளர்கள் கண்டுபிடித்துள்ளார்கள்..ஒவ்வொரு நபருக்கும் ஒரே தாக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் பொதுவான உணவுகள் இல்லை என்பதை நினைவில் வைத்து கொள்ளுங்கள் –
உதாரணமாக, ஒரு வெண்ணெய் பழத்தை (avocado) சாப்பிடுவது ஒரு நபருக்கு முகப்பருவைத் தடுக்க உதவுகிறது, ஆனால் உணவு ஒவ்வாமை அல்லது உணர்திறன் சிக்கல் காரணமாக மற்றவர்களின் உடல்நல பிரச்ச னைகளுக்கு வழிவகுக்கலாம்.நம் உடல்கள் ஒரே உணவிற்கு வித்தியாசமாக செயல்படலாம்.ஏனெனில் நம் ஒவ்வொருவருமே வித்தியாசமான உடலமைப்கொண்டுள்ளோம்
. மெதுவாக உங்கள் உணவில் புதிய உணவுகளை அறிமுகப்படுத்துவது சிறப்பானதாகும் .அவ்வகையான உண்ணவிற்கு நல்ல அறிகுறிகளை உடல் காண்பிக்குமாயின் மெதுவாக அந்த உணவின் அளவைக் கூட்டிக் கொள்ளலாம்
முகப்பருவைத்தடுக்கும் 8 வகையான உணவு வகைளைச் சாப்பிடத் தொடங்குதல்.
முகப்பருவை தடுப்பதற்கும் உங்கள் தோல் ஆரோக்கியத்திற்கும் நல்ல உணவுப்பட்டியல் கீழே கொடுக்கப்படுகின்றது.
1Almonds பாதாம்
பாதம்பருப்பில் மிக அதிகளவிலான விட்மிக்ஈ உள்ளது. அழகு நிபுணர்களால் இந்த உணவு அதிகம் பயன்படுத்தப்படுகின்றது. இதுதோலை அதிகம் பாது காக்கின்றது. இதில் அதிகம் பிறபொருள் எதிரிகள் காணப்படும் இவை தோல் பருக்களை ஏற்படுத்தும் பக்கீரியா, மற்றும் பங்கசு என்பவற்றிற்கு எதிராக போரிட்டு தோலைப் பாதுகாக்கும். ஒவ்வொருநாளும் சிறிதளவு பாதாம பருப்பைச் சாப்பிட்டு அதன் வித்தியாசத்தை உணர்ந்து கொள்ளுங்கள்.
Avocado வெண்ணைப் பழம்
வெண்ணைப் பழத்தில் விட்டமின் ஈ மற்றும் விட்டமின் சி ஆகியவ்வை அதிகம் உண்டு, தோல் அழற்சியை வராமல் பாதுகாக்கும்
Red Grapes சிகப்பு திராட்சை
. திராட்சை, குறிப்பாக சிவப்பு வகை இயற்கை பிறபொருள் எதிரிகளைக் கொண்டதாகும் அத்துடன் இரசாயனங்கள் ஏராளமாக்கொண்டதாகும் . இது தோல் அழற்சியிலிருந்து காப்பாற்றும்.
. இது முகப்பரு மற்றும் அரிக்கும் தோலழற்சி மற்றும் தடிப்பு தோல் அழற்சி eczema போன்ற பிற தோல் நோய்த்தொற்றுகளை கட்டுப்படுத்தவும் தடுக்கவும் உதவுகிறது. இந்த சுவையான பழம் உங்கள் தோல் மீது பல்வேறு ஒவ்வாமை எதிர்வினைகளை பக்க விளைவுகள் என்பவற்றையும் கட்டுப்படுத்தும்.
உங்கள் அழகு தொடர்பான அணைத்து கேள்விகளுக்கும் எங்கள் அழகு கலை நிபுணருடன் தொடர்புகொள்ளுங்கள்
Artichokes கூனைப்பூ
இது நார்த்தன்மை கொண்ட ஒரு சிறந்த உணவாகும் இதில் பிறபொருள் எதிரிகள் அதிகம் காணப்படும் அத்துடன் விற்றமின் சீயும் அதிகமாக் காணப்படும் . இது அதிக செரிமானத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் அத்துடன் உங்கள் தோல் தொற்றுகள் ஏற்படாது பாதுகாக்கும்.ஆரோக்கியமான மினுமினுப்பான தோலைப் பெறுவதற்கு கூனைப்பூ மிகவும் சிறந்த்தாகும்
Garlic வெள்ளைப்பூண்டு
வெள்ளைப் பூண்டில் அலிசீன் என்றழைக்கப்படும் இரசாயணம் அதிகம் இருப்பதால், அது முகப்ருவீக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் பக்ரீரியாவை கொல்லுகின்றது. அழகுநிபுணர்கள் முகப்பருக்களைத் தடுப்பதற்கு பூண்டு அரைத்து முகத்தில் பூசுகின்றார்கள்.
Brown Rice சிகப்பு நாட்டரிசி
. சிகப்பு அரிசியில் விட்டமின் பி, புரதம், பிறபொருள்எதிரிகள், , மற்றும் மக்னீசியம் நிறைந்த நிலையில், சிகப்பு அரிசி, ஹார்மோன்களை ஒழுங்குபடுத்துவதில் மிகவும் உதவியாக இருக்கும்,அதனால் முகப்பரு ஏற்படுவது தடுக்கப்படும்..
Broccoli பச்சைப் பூக்கோசு

Fresh green vegetables, isolated on white, macro close up with copy space
.இதனைச் சாப்பிடுவதற்கு உங்களுக்கு அதிகம் விருப்பமில்லாது இருக்கலாம், ஆனால் முப்பருவைத் தடுக்கவேண்டுமாயின் இந்த மரக்கறியை நீங்கள் சாப்பிட்டேயாகவேண்டும். இதில் விற்றமின் A, B, C, E, K,ஆகியவை இணைந்து தோலுக்கு எதிராக ஏற்படும் தொற்றுகளுக்கு எதிராகச் செயற்படுகின்றன.
Fatty Fish கொழுத்த மீன்
ஒமேகா -3 மற்றும் ஒமேகா -6 ஆகியவை இயற்கையான கொழுப்பு அமிலங்களாக இருக்கின்றன, அவை மீன் போன்ற உணவின்மூலமே பெற்றுக் கொள்ள முடியும்..இவை முகப்பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கு எதிராகத் தாக்கம் செய்து முகப்பருவருவதைத் தடுக்கின்றன.
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முகப்பருக்களைத் தூண்டக்கூடிய பொதுவான உணவுகள்.
உணவுகள் பற்றி நாம் அவதானம் செலுத்தும்போது முகப்பருக்கைளைத் தூண்டுகிறதும், கட்டுப்படுத்துகிறதும் தடுக்கிறதுமானவற்றைத் தெரிவுசெய்வதில் கவம் செலுத்தல் வேண்டும்.
குறிப்பு : As mentioned earlier, not everyone reacts the same way to the same foods. உணவுகள் ஒவ்வொருத்தருக்கும் ஒவ்வொருவிதமாகச் செயற்படும் என்பதை நாம் ஏற்கனவே பார்த்துள்ளோம்.
உமக்கு முப்பருக்கள் இருக்குமாயின் ஒன்றொ அல்லது இரண்டோ உணவு வகைகளைத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளுதல் அவசியமாகும். உதாரணமாக பால்வகை உணவுகளை ஒருவாரத்திற்குத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளலாம்.இரண்டாவதாக கொழுப்பு உணவுகளைத் தவித்துக் கொள்ளுதல் போன்ற செயன்முறையில் ஈடுபடலாம். . முப்பருக்கள் இல்லாமல் போகும்வரை இவ்வாறு உணவுகளைத் தவிர்த்துப் பார்த்துக் கொள்ளல் வேண்டும்.
Sugar சீனி
முகப்பரு ஏற்படுவதற்கும் சீனி பயன்பாட்டிற்கும் சம்பந்தமுள்ளதாக கல்விப்படிப்புக்கள் கூறுகின்றன.
இதனால் நீங்கள் இனிப்புப் பொருட்கள் சாப்பிடும் போது பருக்கள் ஏற்படும் என்று அர்த்தமல்ல. பொதுவாக சீனிப்பதார்த்தங்கள் சாப்பிட்பின்பு செரிமானம் அடைந்து விடும்.. உதாரணமாக ஒரு குளிர்பானம் குடிப்பதனால் அல்லது இனிப்பு பண்டம் சாப்பிடுவதனால் சிறதளவு சீனியின் அளவை அதிகரிக்கும். இது ஒரு மணிநேரம்வரை நீடிக்கும். சிலவேளை களில் ஒரு வாரங்க ளுக்கு நீடிக்கும். நீங்கள் அதிகம் சீனிப்பண்டங்களைச் சாப்பிட்டு அதனால் பருக்கள் உண்டா குமாயின் சீனிப் பண்டம் பாவிப்தைச் சிறிது குறைத்து அதன் பிரதிபலனை அவதானி க்கவும்.
Cow’s Milk பசுப்பால்.
பசுப்பால் பருகுதற்கும் பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கும் சம்பந்தம் இருப்பதாக ஆய்வுகள் கூறுகின்றன.
2 விஞ்ஞானிகள் சரியான காரணத்தை உறுதிப்படுத்தாவிட்டாலும், இந்த கோரிக்கையை ஆதரிக்கும் பல கோட்பாடுகள் உள்ளன.பசுப்பால் இரத்த சர்க்கரை ஒரு மாற்றத்தைக் காண்பிக்கும் என்று அறியப்படுகிறது, இதனால் உங்கள் இன்சுலின் அளவு அதிகரிக்கிறது இது உங்கள் தோல் மீது எண்ணெய் உற்பத்தி அதிகரிப்பை ஏற்படுத்தலாம் மேலும், பெரும்பாலான பசுப் பால் ஹார்மோன்களைக் கொண்டிருக்கிறது, இது தோல் சிசுக்களை அதிக வளர்ச்சியடையச் செய்யலாம், அவை முகப்பருக்களை ஏற்படுத்தலாம்.
Processed Foods பதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட உணவுகள்
நீங்கள் வெள்ளை ரொட்டி, பெட்டிகளில் அடைக்கப்பட்ட தானியங்கள், வெள்ளை அரிசி, உருளைக்கிழங்குபொரியல்கள் ,, கேக்குகள்,, மற்றும் சாக்லேட் போன்ற உணவுகள் அதிகம் சாப்பிடுபவர்களாயிருந்தால் இருந்தால், உங்களுக்கு அதிகமாக முகப்பரு ஏற்படுவதற்கான சந்தர்ப்பங்கள் உருவாகலாம். இவற்றை நீங்கள் உட்கொள்வதால் இவை அதிகம் வி ரவாக செரிமானம் அடைந்து, இரத்த்தில் சீனியின் அளவை அதிகரிப்பதால், முகப்பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கான சந்தர்ப்பங்கள் ஏற்படலாம்.. இது உங்கள் சரீரத்தில் அதிகளவு ஹாமோ னின் அளவை அதிகரிக்கலாம்,தோல் வீக்கத்தை அதிகரிக்கலாம் அதனால் பருக்கள் ஏற்படுவதற்கான சந்தர்ப்பங்கள் அதிகரிக்கும். பதப்படுத்தப்பட்ட உணவிற்குப்பதிலாக தானிய உணவுகள், மரக்கறிஉணவுகள், வத்தாளங்கிழங்கு மற்றும் சிகப்பு அரிசி உணவுபான்ற என்பவற்றை உண்ணலாம்.
Fast-Foods
துரித உணவு குழந்தை பருவ ஆஸ்த்துமா போன்ற கடுமையான நிலைமைகளுடன் தொடர்புபட்டது, இது முக்கியமாக உடலின் அதிகரித்த வீக்கத்தை ஏற்படுத்தும் இந்த வீக்கமானது நிச்சயமாக முகப்பருக்களை உண்டாக்கும். இதனால் நீங்கள் முகப்பருக்களிலிருந்து உங்களைக் காத்துக் கொள்வதற்காக துரித உணவுகளைப்குப்பதிலாக யோகட், சலாட் போன்றவற்றைப்பயன்படுத்தலாம்.
Junk Foods. துரித உணவுகள்.
இவ்வகையான உணவுகள் முக்கியமாக குழந்தைகயைம் இளைஞர்களை யும் இலக்கு வைத்து செய்யப்படுகின்றன. மேலும் இளம் குழந்தைகளில் முகப்பரு உண்டாவதற்கு இவை காரணமாகின்றன. இவை பார்வைக்கு அழகாக இருக்கும்படி வர்ணநிறங்களினால் உருவாக்கபடுகின்றன. . இவ்வகையான உணவுகள் அதிகம் கொள்வனவு செய்யப்படுவதற்காக சில பாதிப்புக்களை ஏற்படுத்தக்கூடிய பயனற்ற வாசனை இரசாயணங்களைக் கொண்டும் தயாரிக்கப்படுகின்றன. இவற்றில் ஆபத்தான நிறைவான கொழுப்புக்களும் அடங்கியுள்ளன.அத்துடன் சோடியம், கலோரிகள் அற்ற செயற்கைச் சீனி, மற்றும் பாது காப்பதற்கான பதார்த்தங்கள் சேர்க்கப்படுகின்றன. இவை தவிர்க்கப்படவேண்டிய உணவுகளாகும்.
பிரஞ்சு பொரியல்கள், சாக்லேட்டுக்கள், மென்மையான பானங்கள், சீஸ்பேகர்கள், பீஸ்ஸாக்கள் மற்றும் வறுத்த வெங்காயம் என்பன உங்கள் முகப்பருப்பிரச்சனைகளை இன்னும் மோசமாக்கும். அதனால் இவற்றைத் தவிர்த்துக் கொள்ளுங்கள்.

way to reduce your fat belly!

way to reduce your fat belly!

Here is a great tip to lose weight in 2018. All you need to do is tweak your diet only a bit and this one change is easy to follow and is super effective as well.

Eat five servings of veggies every day and every day here means every single day no matter what. Vegetables are low in calories and high in fibre. This keeps you fuller for longer and stops you from bingeing. Also, vegetables are packed with minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. When you replace your other meals with vegetables you intake fewer calories without missing the feeling of fullness.
So how does this benefit you? Not only the fiber in the veggies makes you feel fuller for longer but according to studies, every gram of fiber we eat essentially cancels out 7 calories. Fiber-rich diet is also linked with less belly fat and regulating blood sugar.
A study was conducted where people were divided into two groups. People of both the groups ate the same number of calories but the people who had more plant food had lower BMI, slimmer waist and less inflammation. Eating more veggies every day gives you protection against many common chronic diseases and a healthier gut microbe which in turn is related to a stronger immunity. According to a study conducted at St. Andrews University, people who increased their intake of veggies were rated as more attractive than those who did not.

Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?

Why  Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?

A latest study on Pregnant Women consuming eggs resulted in the baby born with a higher IQs. But this study included about 9 eggs per day which is too big for even a normal human being.
According to the study in Cornell University with 26 pregnant women in their third trimesters, the amount of Choline present in the eggs directly affects the babies’ memories and brain development. However this unusual number of 9 eggs can be fatal if the cholesterol level is increased to a certain abnormal percentage.
The ability to think and process information, creating results based on many factors and decision making skills is associated with this study. A study increase in these factors is seen on the babies whose mother consumed eggs adequately.
Choline is important for mothers to consume on their pregnancy period, about 480 mg obtained from eggs, red meat, fish, Poultry and nuts. These protein based diet is considered to be a nutrient dense resource for the development of the baby’s integral organs and parts.
The half of the researched Women consumed up to 930 mg of the nutrient from whole eggs resulted in giving birth to babies with higher IQs compared to other group which consumed a normal 480 mg thats why   Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs.
Though the study was published the results are subjected to further study keeping the various environmental factors on the analysis. The researched group is very small to gain confident evaluation of the suggested study. Maternal diet with moderation in every nutrient is always a balanced and also a safe go for parents expecting a healthy child.  why  Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs/  why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs

Nutrients In Eggs

Eggs are a nutrient goldmine!

One large egg has varying amounts of 13 essential vitamins and minerals, high-quality protein, all for 70 calories.
While egg whites contain some of the eggs’ high-quality protein, riboflavin and selenium, the majority of an egg’s nutrient package is found in the yolk. Nutrients such as:
Vitamin D, critical for bone health and immune function. Eggs are one of the only foods that naturally contain vitamin D.
Choline, essential for normal functioning of all cells, but particularly important during pregnancy to support healthy brain development of the fetus.
Lutein and zeaxanthin, antioxidants that are believed to reduce the risk of developing cataracts and slow the progression of age-related macular degeneration, a disease that develops with age.thats Why  Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?
Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?/Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?/.Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?Why Pregnanat Women should consume Eggs?/

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  • Chennai,  originally  known as Madras Patnam, was located in  the  province  of Tondaimandalam,  an area lying between Pennar river of Nellore and the  Pennar  river of Cuddalore. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram.Tondaimandalam was ruled in the 2nd century A.D. by Tondaiman Ilam  Tiraiyan, who  was a representative of the Chola family at Kanchipuram. It  is  believed  that Ilam Tiraiyan must have subdued Kurumbas, the original inhabitants of the region  and  established  his rule over  Tondaimandalam.  

    Subsequent  to  Ilam Tiraiyan, the region seemed to have been ruled by the Chola Prince Ilam Killi.The  Chola  occupation  of Tondaimandalam was put to an end by the  Andhra Satavahana  incursions  from  the north under their King  Pulumayi  II.  They  appointed chieftains to look after the Kancheepuram region. Bappaswami, who is considered  as  the  first Pallava to rule from Kancheepuram,  was  himself  a chieftain (of the tract round) at Kancheepuram under the Satavahana empire in  the beginning  of  the 3rd century A.D., The Pallavas who had so far been merely viceroys, became independent rulers of Kancheepuram and its surrounding areas.

    Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century A.D.to the closing years of the 9th century except for the interval of some decades  when the region was under Kalabharas.  Pallavas were defeated by the Chola under Aditya-I by about 879 A.D. and  the region was brought under Chola rule.Pandyas  under  Jatavarman  Sundara Pandya rose to power and  the  region  was brought  under Pandya rule by putting an end to Chola supremacy in  1264 A.D.Pandya’s rule over this region lasted a little over half a century followed  by Bahmini kingdom with the extension of Delhi Sultanate under Khilji dynasty especially under the rule of Alauddin Khilji, a pioneer of all revenue worksDuring 1361, Kumara Kampana II, the son of Vijayanagar King, Bukka I conquered and  established  Vijayanagar rule in Tondaimandalam.

    The  Vijayanagar  rulers appointed  chieftain known as Nayaks who ruled over the different  regions  of the province almost independently.Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, an influential chieftain under Venkata  III,  who was in-charge of the area of present Chennai city, gave the grant of a piece of land  lying between the river Cooum almost at the point it enters the sea  andanother  river known as Egmore river to the English in 1639. On this piece  of  waste   land   was  founded  the  Fort  St. George  exactly for   business  considerations.  In honour of Chennappa Nayak, father of Venkatapathy  Nayak, who  controlled  the entire coastal  country from Pulicat in the north  to  the Portuguese  settlement of Santhome, the settlement which had grown  up  around  Fort St. George was named after Chennapatanam. 

    The older area called the Madraspatnam lay  to  the  north of it.  Later on, the intervening space  between  the  older northern site of Madraspatnam came to be quickly built over with houses of the new settlers (as the two expanded) and that the two villages  became  virtually one town. While the official centre of the settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras Patnam to the combined town. Golkonda  forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646 and brought Chennai  and  its  immediate surroundings under his control. On the fall  of Golkonda  in  1687, the region came under the rule of the Mughal Emperors  of Delhi. 

    Firmans  were  issued by the Mughal Emperor  granting the  rights  of English company in Chennai. In  the  later  part of the seventeenth century, Chennai  steadily progressed  during  the  period of Agency and under many Governors. During the  regime  of Governor  Elihi Yale (1687-92),the most important event was the formation  of  the institution of a mayor and Corporation for the city of Chennai. In  1693,  a  perwanna was received from the local Nawab granting  the  towns  Tondiarpet,  Purasawalkam  and Egmore to the company. Thomas Pitt  became  the Governor  of Chennai  in  1698 and governed  for eleven  years.  This  period  witnessed  remarkable  development  of  trade and  increase  in  wealth.  

    The important  events during this period were the blockade of Chennai by Daud  Khan  and  its repulsion and the acquisition of additional suburban villages by  the English.  Thiruvottiyur,  Vysarpadi, Kathivakkam, Nungambakkam  and  Satangadu  were  made  as a free gift to the English in 1708. In 1735,  Chintadripet  was taken  over  and in 1742 Vepery, Perambur and Periamet were presented  to  the British. Nicholas Morse was the Governor from 1744 to 1746. The most important event  during his time was the outbreak of war between England and France  and  the  consequent struggle for supremacy between the French and the  English  in South  India. Chennai was captured by the French in 1744 but consequent on  the treaty  of  peace of Aix-La-Chapelle, Chennai was restored to  the  English  in 1749. 

    George Pigot was the Governor for the period from 1755 to 1763. The period  is remarkable  for the fact that the Company form a trading  corporation,  owning isolated  towns, forts and factories, became a ruling power  controlling  vast territories. Charles  Bourchier  became Governor in 1767. During his period Hyder  Ali  who usurped  the  Sovereignty of Mysore joined hands with the Nizam and  began  an offensive  on Chennai. In 1761, a treaty was signed between Hyder Ali  and  the Company  for  an  alliance  and  mutual  restitution  of  the  conquests.  The Governance of the Carnatic became the responsibility of the Chennai  Government which could not maintain a large army without the revenue of Nawabs. In  1763,the  English  got the district of Chengalpattu known as Chennai Jagir  for  the maintenance of the army.Lord  Macartney  took  charge of the Chennai Government  in  1781.  

    During  his period,  Chennai was turned into an important Naval base. Major General  Medows became Governor in 1790. The position of the English was made secure in  South India. the elimination of other foreign power and settlement of the limits  of native  territory  gave stability and paved the way for an era  of  commercial development.  In  1792, in a new treaty Mohammed Ali handed  over  the  entire management  of the Carnatic to the English and accepted in return  a  pension. Another  important event of this period was the outbreak of Mysore war.  Tippu was  killed in 1799 and the whole of Carnatic ceded to the British.  

    Thus  the supremacy  of  the  English in South India was established.  The  present  day territorial limits of the city existed in the shape of scattered villages  for centuries  before  the advent of the British. In the process of  growth,  many villages got agglomerated into a single unit. The shape and extent of the city which existed during 1939-40 was reached even during the opening years of 19th century. The period in between 1803 to 1827 represents consolidation and development of institutions.  

    Sir Edward Elliot was the important Governor of  Chennai  during this period. He appointed a Judicial Commission with Munro as its President in 1814.  Several  reforms  in  the  administrative  system  were  made  by   the Commission.  Sir Thomas Munro became the Governor in 1820 and  continued  till 1827. He tried his best to improve literacy. He initiated English education in Chennai  and established a body called Board of Public Instructions to  improve and direct public education. Important  improvement made to Chennai city during the first half of  the  19th century  was  the  progress  made in the  establishment  of  institutions  for professional and technical education. 

    School of Industrial Art was started  in 1850,  Civil Engineering College in 1834 and Madras Medical College  in  1835,etc.  The  Madras University was started in September 1857.  The Chennai  High Court  was created in June 1862. The Railway Company in Chennai was  formed  in July  1845.  the first construction work began on 9th June 1853 and  in  1858,South Indian Railway was formed having Chennai as the Railway Headquarters. Lord  Hobart who was the Governor from 1872 to 1875 initiated  Chennai  Harbour project. The Congress party came to life during the period 1881-90. The Indian National Congress held its session in 1887 at Chennai.

    The First Governor of Chennai in the 20th century was Lord Ampthill (1901-06).  Sir Arthur Law-by was the Governor from 1906-1911 and Lord Pentland from  1912-19. The  important Landmarks during this period were the establishment  of  Chennai Electric Supply Corporation in 1906 and opening of Indian Bank in 1907. During  1934 and 1936 for a short period, two Indians Sir M.D. Usman Sahib and Sir  K. Venkatareddy Naidu acted as Governors of Chennai.  In 1937, the Ministry of Shri C.  Rajagopalachari  came  into power for two years.  The  influence  of  the Governors on the administration considerably diminished. The British  departed on  15th  August

  • Historical Events at a Glance

    1639         Madras founded .
    The English get Madras Patnam  from Ayyapa Naicker.
    1640         Francis Day and Cogan landed with 25 Europeans.
    Foundation laid for Fort St.George.
    1668         Triplicane annexed to the city.
    1678         Foundation laid for St. Mary’s Church in Fort St. George.
    1679         St.Mary’s Church Completed.
    1688         Madras City Municipal Corporation inaugurated.
    1693         Egmore, Purasawalkam and Tondiarpet annexed to the City.


    1708         Thiruvottiyur, Nungambakkam, Vyasarpady,
    Kottivakkam and Sathangadu  –
    Five neighbouring Villages annexed;
    wall built around Black Town.
    1711         First Printing Press erected in Madras.
    1735         Chintadripet was formed.
    1742         Veperi, Perimet, Perambur and Pudupakkam annexed to the city.
    1746         The French return Madras to the English;
    Santhome and Mylapore annexed to the City.


    1758         French Commander Lawly siege Madras.
    1759         French siege ended.
    1767         Hyder Ali’s first invasion.
    1768         Chepauk palace built by Nawab of Arcot.
    1769         Hyder Ali’s Second invasion.
    1777         Veerappillai appointed as First Kotthawal-
    Hence the name Kotthawal Chavadi.
    1783         Fort St. George repaired and attains the present shape.
    1784         The First Newspaper –Madras Courier.
    1785         First Post Office.
    1795         Triplicane Big Mosque-Walajah Mosque built.


    1817         Madras Literary Society founded.
    1826         Board of Public Instructions founded.
    1831         First Commercial Bank –Madras Bank.
    First Census in the City Population
     39,785.
    1832         Madras Club founded.
    1834         First Survey School inaugurated –
    Later developed as Engineering College.
    1835         First Medical College –
    Later became Madras Christian College.
    1841         Ice House was built –
    Ice brought from America through ships was stored here;
    Later named as Vivekananda House.
    1842         First Light House.
    1846         Pachaiappan School; Later Pachaiappa’s College.


    1851         Museum formed
    1853         Zoo formed.
    1855         University Board formed.
    1856         First Railway –Royapuram to Arcot.
    1857         Madras University founded.
    1864-65    Presidency College built.
    1868         Attempt to protected water supply.
    1873         First Birth Registered.
    Madras Mail Newspaper founded.
    Cosmopolitan Club founded.
    1874         University Senate house built.
    1876-78    Great Famine – Buckingham Canal dug.
    1878         The Hindu Newspaper founded.
    1882         First Telephone.
    1885         Marina Beach Road formed.
    1886         Indian National Congress Meet at Madras.
    Connemera Public Library founded.
    1889         High Court Building foundation laid.
    1894         First Car –  Mr. A.J. Boag, Director of Parry&Co,
    drove the Car on City Roads.
    1895         First Tram Car.
    1899         First Tamil Newspaper-Swadesamitran.


    1905         Port Trust formed.
    1906         Indian Bank founded.
    King Institute, Guindy founded.
    1914         Water mains and drainage formed.
    Street lights introduced.
    Kilpauk water works inaugurated.
    Endon bombardment-
    Endon German fighter Vessel bombarded the sea shore
     and
    disappeared – First World War.
    1917         First Aeroplane;
    Simpson & Co., arranged for the trial flight.
    1924         School of Indian Medicine.
    1925         Loyola College
    First Bus Transport.
    1930         First Broadcasting Station founded at Ripon Buildings Complex.
    1934         First Mayor – Raja Sir. Muthiah Chettiyar
    1938         All India Radio formed and
    broadcasting from Ripon Buildings ceased.


    1942         Second World War – Evacuation of Madras.
    1943         Japanese Fighter Plane dropped bombs on City and disappeared.


    1946         Mambalam, Saidapet, Govt. Farm, Puliyur, Kodambakkam,
    Saligramam, Adayar and Alandur Villages which formed part of
    Saidapet Municipality were annexed to the city.
                              

                     Sembiyam, Siruvallur, Peravallur, Small   Sembarambakkam
    and  Ayanavaram which formed part of Sembium Panchayat
    Board  were annexed to the city.

    Aminjikarai, Periyakudal, Maduvankarai Villages which formed
    part of  Aminjikarai  Panchayat Board were annexed.

    Part of Velacheri Village belonging to Velacheri Panchayat Board
    was also annexed to the city.

    1947         Indian National Flag Hoisted over Fort. St. George.
    1952         Nehru Stadium.
    1956         Gandhi Mandap.
    1959         Guindy Children’s Park.
    1969         World Tamil Congress.
    1971         Snake Park.
    1972         Madras Metropolitan Development Authority.
    1973         Madras Corporation Superceded.
    1974         Rajaji Mandap.
    Madras Television Centre.
    1975         Kamaraj Mandap.
    Valluvar Kottam.


    1976         New Light House.
    1977         Madras Metropolitan Water supply and Sewage Board
    Kanagam, Taramani, Thiruvanmiyur, Velacheri, Kodambakkam,
    Virugambakkam, Saligramam, Koyambedu, Thirumangalam,
    Villivakkam, Errukancheri, Kolathur, Kodungaiyur
    Panchayat areas annexed to the City;
    Madras reaches the present stage.
    1983         Zoo shifted to Vandalur.
    1988         Periyar Science Park
    Birla Planetarium.
    Madras Corporation’s Tri-centenary.
    Decentralisation of Administration.
    10 Circles formed.

     

    About Chennai

    ORIGIN AND GROWTH

    The Beginnings of Madras

    The beginnings of the City of Madras go back to the earliest stages of English commercial enterprise in India. The English East India Company was started in 1600. Twelve years later a Trading House or Factory was built at Surat on the West Coast under the protection of the Mughal Governor of Gujarat. On the Coromandel Coast the English first attempted a landing at Pulicat. The place is about 25 miles north of Madras and its great backwater, the Pulicat Lake, afforded a safe shelter for the shipping of those days. But the Dutch, who were the bitter rivals of the English, had already been settled at the place and had the ear of the local Nayak. Hence the English found it impossible to ply their trade advantageously at that place. They then attempted to settle at Peddapalli or Nizampatnam, which was at the mouth of a small channel of the Krishna Delta. But the climate of the place was deadly to the English merchants and this settlement had also to be abandoned after a few years of hopeless struggle.

    Masulipatnam was the chief port of the Muhammadan Kingdom of Golconda. It was well protected from the monsoon winds and was the chief market for diamonds and rubies for which South India was then famous, as well as for the valuable chintz and painted cloths which are even now produced in large quantities in its neighborhood. The English, after some effort, secured the privilege of building a factory at this port. But they later abandoned their factory and crept away in a small boat to Durgarazpatnam (otherwise known as Armagaon) situated about 35 miles to the north of Pulicat. This place was a miserable port and was too poor to supply the calico cloth which the English wanted for export to Europe. But it was the only safe shelter for the English at the time and here they built a small fort and mounted a few pieces of cannon upon it. But trade did not thrive and the miserable English traders planned to go back to Masulipatam under the protection of a Golden Firman which the Sultan of Golconda was kind enough to give them. But Masulipatam was in the throes of a famine just then and in spite of every assurance of protection, English trade did not thrive at that place.

    The English pitch upon the Site of Madras

    With Masulipatam unprosperous and Armagaon hopeless, the English traders anxiously looked out for a new site that would be more propitious for them. Mr.Francis Day, the future founder of Madras, who was then a Member of the Masulipatam Council and the Chief of the Armagaon Factory, made a voyage of exploration in 1637 down the coast as far as Pondicherry with a view to choose a site for a new settlement. At that time the Coromandel Coast was nominally under the Rajah of Chandragiri who was a descendant of the famous Rayas of Vijayanagar. Under the Rajah, local chiefs known as Nayaks, ruled over the different districts. One of these Nayaks had given permission to the Dutch to build a strong fort at Pulicat where they had grown to be powerful enough to deal on equal terms with the Nayaks of the neighborhood.

    Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak ruled all the coast country from Pulicat to the Portuguese settlement of San Thome now included within the City of Madras. He had his head-quarters at Wandiwash and his brother Ayyappa Nayak resided at Poonamallee, a few miles to the west of Madras, and looked after the affairs of the coast. It was probably this Ayyappa Nayak that made overtures to Day, inviting him to choose a site in the territory of his brother. The offer looked good; and Day wrote to Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site and examine the possibilities of trade there. The results of his personal inspection were apparently favourable; and he wrote that the calicos woven at Madraspatnam which was the place offered by the Nayak for the site of the proposed factory were much cheaper than those at Armagaon. Day secured a Grant (copies of which endorsed by Cogan, the Chief of the Masulipatam Factory, are even now preserved) giving over to the English the village of Madraspatnam for a period of two years and empowering them to build a fort and castle at that place. The Grant is dated August 1639.

    The English Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with the action of Mr. Day and resolved that he should proved again to Madras and contact the Nayak until the sanction of the superior English Presidency of Bantam (in java) could be obtained for their action.

    The chief difficulty, as usual with the English in those days, was lack of money. At last, in February 1640, Day and Cogan accompanied by a few factors and writers, a garrison of about 25 European soldiers and a few other European artificers, besides a Hindu powder-maker by name Naga Battan, proceeded to Madras and started the English factory. They reached Madraspatnam on the 20th of February; and this date is important because it marks the first actual settlement of the English at the place.

    Extent of their First Settlement

    The extent of land transferred to the English under the Nayak’s Grant is not found specified anywhere. But it was the whole area contained within the traditional village limits of Madraspatnam. This nucleus area appears to have extended along the coast from a point a few hundred yards north of the mouth of the Cooum River, right up to a little beyond the northern end of the present Geroge Town. In the interior, the area included the island ground on the west and its western line ran along the present Cochrane’s Canal, then known as the North River, right up to the north-western corner of the present George Town. To this area, surrounding villages were added from time to time in the customary British fashion.

    In those days, the Cooum River which had a winding course through the villages of Chetput, Nungambakkam and Chintadripet, had, as it still had a common outlet to the sea along with the North River at some distance to the south of the limits of the Madraspatnam Village. The North River (or Elambore River as it was called in those days) flowed parallel to and a mile distant from the coast along the western side of Madraspatnam Village. At the site of the present General Hospital, the river took a sharp bend to the east and, when near the sea, it again took another bend to the south; and it then flowed on for about three-fourths of a mile parallel to the shore and joined the Cooum at its mouth. The two streams formed a wide and shallow backwater at their joint outlet. At the point where the North River bent east, there was only a narrow neck of land about 300 yards in length that separated it from the Cooum as it curved towards the sea. At this point a cut was made several years after the foundation of the City, probably with the object of equalising flood levels; and thus the Island ground was literally converted into an Island.

    The site of the Fort planned by the English settlers was on the bank of sand between the North River and the sea, just in the southern end in the village of Madraspatnam and three-fourths of a mile north of the river mouth.

    The Building of the Fort by Day and Cogan

    he Fort was planned nearly square, with a bastion at each corner and the Factory House was in the centre of the Fort and was built diagonally to the square so that each face of the house opened on the gorge of a bastion. The building of the Factory House was taken up on March 1st, 1640. A portion of the structure was presumably completed by St. George’s Day (23rd April) of that year and the name Fort St. George was consequently given to the Fort.

    The bastions were first built and erection of the curtain walls connecting them proceeded more slowly as funds permitted. The whole Fort took fourteen years to construct and was finished only in 1653. It measured about 100 yards by north to south and by 80 yards east to west. On its northern and southern sides buildings and streets sprang up and constituted what came to be known later as the White Town.

    Indian merchants and artificers were attracted to the settlement and encouraged to build houses therein under a promise of exemptions from import taxes for a period of thirty years. It is said that within the first year of the life of the settlement, there arose some seventy to eighty substantial houses to the north and south of the Fort while in the village of Madraspatnam nearly four hundred families of weavers had come to settle permanently.chennai directory

    Day had made himself personally responsible for payment of interest on the loans got for the building of the settlement. Charges of private trade were however brought against him and he was sent to England in 1641 to answer them. He successfully faced these charges and returned to the Coromandel Coast as Second-in-Council at Madras. Cogan had been meanwhile made the Agent of Madras. He remained in the settlement for more than three years during which time he nursed the Fort into some strength and the town into some measure of prosperity. He was also charged with extravagant expenditure on the fortifications and resolved in disgust to resign his position to Day and sail away. Day became his successor in the Agency in Madras but did not enjoy his position long. He also departed for England within a year of his assumption of the Agency (1644).

    Day had proposed and planned the settlement and secured the Grant of the Nayak for it. Cogan had been useful from the beginning and was mainly responsible for the erection of the Fort and for the colonization of the place. Both were taken to task by the Court of Directors of the English Company, Cogan for unauthorised expenditure and Day for private trading. The memory of neither is kept green in Madras whose foundations they helped to lay. “Neither Cogan nor Day is kept in memory by Statue, Portrait or Place name. Not even does the Secretariat Building in the Fort, the successor of the old Factory House, bear a tablet to commemorate the achievements of the joint Founders of Madras”.chennai directory

    The Names Madraspatnam and Chennapatnam

    We saw the Damarla Venkatapathy and his brother Ayyappa gave the English the grant of Madras. The Rajah of Chandragiri was Venkatapathy Rayalu. From this Rajah the English got a confirmation of the Nayak’s Grant. Venkatapathy was succeeded by his nephew Srirangarayalu in 1642. To the new Raya, Thomas Ivy, the successor of Day in the Agency of Madras, sent Factor Greenhill on a mission which resulted in the issue of a new Grant to the English (copies of this grant are available now). It is dated October-November 1645. It confirmed the Grant of the Raya’s predecessor and empowered the English to administer justice and gave them an additional piece of land known as the Narimedu (Jackal-ground) which lay to the west of the village of Madraspatnam. All these three grants, viz., of Damarla Venkatapathy Nayak, Kind Venkatapathy and his successor Srirangarayalu, were engraved on gold plates but none of them is now extant.

    In Srirangaraya’s Grant of 1645 the Town of Madras is expressly called “Srirangarayapatnam, My Town,” and a distinction is made between the town of Madraspatnam and the new town growing round the Fort which is expressly called Srirangarayapatnam. The first Grant of Damarly Venkatapathy Nayak makes mention of the village of Madraspatnam. Both Venkatapathy and his brother Ayyappa desired that the name Chennapatnam should be given to the new Fort and settlement of the English after their father ChennappaNayak. Srirangarya desired that the name Srirangarayapatnam should be given to the Fort and settlement of the English in the place of Chennapatnam. The fact that the family of Damarla Venkatapathy, son of Chennappa, was disgraced by Srirangaraya, probably explains the reason why the Raya offered his own name to be given to the settlement and declared that it was a mark of his special favour.chennai directory

    In all the records of the times a difference is made between the original village of Madraspatnam and the new town growing round the Fort. Thus we may say that the village of Madraspatnam existed under that name prior to the English settlement of 1639-40 and the site of Chennapatnam was that of modern Fort St.George. The original village of Madraspatnam lay to the north of the site of the Fort and within a few years of the founding of Fort St.George the new town which grew up round the Fort was commonly known to the Indians as Chennapatnam, either in deference to the wishes of Damarla Venkatapathy or because the site originally bore that name. The intervening space between the northern Madraspatnam and the Southern Chennapatnam came to be built over rapidly so that the two villages became virtually one town. The English preferred to call the two united towns by the name of Madraspatnam with which they had become familiar from the first while the Indians chose to give it the name of Chennapatnam. In course of time the exact original locations of Madraspatnam and Channapatnam came to be confused. Madras was regarded as the site of the Fort and Chennapatnam as the Indian town to the north.chennai directory

    Origin of the Name Madras

    The origin of the name Madraspatnam has long been a puzzle. The name Madras occurs in many forms like Maddaraspatnam, Madras Patnam, Madraspatnam, Madrapatnam, Madrazpatnam, etc. According to one version there was a village of fishermen on the site, the headman of which was a Christian named Madaresan who persuaded Day to call the settlement after his own name. But we know that the name was in use even before the English came on the scene. Otherwise writers have derived the name from the term Madrassa ( a college) and think that there might have been an old Muhammadan College at the place; or there might have been a Church of St.Mary (Madre de Deus) at Madras prior to 1640, probably founded by the Portuguese of San Thome which had been in existence from the previous century and the church might have given name to the village; or there was an Indian rules, Maddarazu, who might have been some local chief in the region in the past after whom the village might have been named Maddarazpatnam.chennai directory

    The Very Revd. Mgr. Teixeira, Bishop of Mylapore, has decently put forward a suggestion based on his discovery of some tombstone inscriptions that the name might well have been after Madras, a Portuguese family of the village and that the family gave their name to the place. Still another view is that Madras was so called because it produced a kind of calico cloth of the name. None of these seems to be very convincing, while the derivation of Madras from the Persian word Madrassa is somewhat fanciful. There is a curious resemblance between the names of the English Town of Madraspatnam, the southern Dutch Factory of Sadraspatnam at the mouth of the Palar river and the northern settlement of Durgarazpatnam (Armagaon).

    The First Years of Madras

    The growth of Madras in its first thirty years was all that could be desired. Very soon after the settlement was founded, a Hindu temple was constructed in the heart of the Indian village that grew up. It was dedicated to Chenna Kesava Perumal and built on part of the grounds of the present High Court. Thus the temple was coeval with the birth of the town. In 1646 and endowment was made to it by Naga Battan, the Company’s powder-maker; and two years later another endowment was made to it by Beri Timmana who is said to have assisted the English in building the settlement and who was employed as the Company’s broker and merchant. It is presumed that this Pagoda had twin shrines in it, dedicated to Vishnu (Chenna Kesava) and Siva (Chenna Mallesvara) even as its present day successor is. Besides these two Indians, we hear of Raghava Battan who was first living in the Portuguese settlement of San Thome and helped the English to get from the Nayak the site of Madras. A cowle (lease or grant in writing) was said to have been given to him by Cogan and Day appointing him the Kanakkupillai (Scrivener) of Madras in 1640 and it was later produced by one of his dependants in a claim that he put forward to the office.

    Within a few years after the English settled at Madras, the authority of the Rajah of Chandragiri disappeared. The Rajah himself was forced to flee to Mysore and the forces of the Sultan of Golconda came to occupy the region surrounding Madras. The Kingdom of Chandragiri was hemmed in one side by the advancing troops of Golconda and on the other by the forces of the Bijapur Sultan who invaded the Carnatic from the Mysore Plateau and occupied the coast between Jinji and Tanjore. Nawab Mir Jumla, who was the Prime Minister of Golconda at this time, played an important part in this conquest of the Carnatic. He was originally a famous diamond merchant and was said to be the richest subject in all India. He had in his service a number of European gunners and cannon-founders and well appreciated the advantages of European aid. The English at Madras lent him the services of their gunner and several of their best soldiers when he went to blockade San Thome in 1646. In return for this help he confirmed all the privileges that they had obtained from the previous Hindu rulers of the Country and also lent them a large sum of money free of interest.

    Thus the English contrived to maintain good terms with the Rajah of Chandragiri to the last and yet to preserve the friendship of the Mussalman, conqueror from the first, a characteristic worship of both the rising and the setting sun.chennai directory

    Early Stages of the City’s Growth

    In 1652 Fort St.George was created a Presidency and its Agent came to be known as President. In those early years the Indian town was governed by three chief officials who were hereditary, viz., the Adhikhari, who dispenses justice, the Kanakkupillai, who assisted the Adhikari, and the Padda Naick, i.e., the Chief Watchman who was the head of the Talaiyaris and who kept order in the streets, arrested thieves and evil-doers and brought them to trial. Many Indians were merchants of the Company and the contractors for the supply of cotton cloth that was needed for export and for the sale of the European goods of the Company. The seniors among them were termed the Company’s Chief Merchants; and the agents and brokers of individual English merchants came to be later on known as Dubashes.

    From time to time, factious fights rose between the right-hand and left-hand castes of the City. Such factions were much prevalent in the country round Conjeeveram. In Madras the Beri Chetties, artisans, Cil-mongers, weavers and leather workers were the chief elements in the left-hand faction, while the Vellalas, the Arya Vysias (Komatis), the Vannias and the Adi-Dravidas belonged to the right-hand division. The grounds of quarrel were mostly with reference to the particular routes that the marriage and funeral processions of these castes should take, and the symbols and the trappings that should adorn their processions and pandals on occasions of festivity; and they were as ready to fall out with each other on the smallest provocation ‘ as Orangemen and Ribbonmen were in Ireland or the Montague’s and Capulets in Verona, or the clans in Scotland.’chennai directory

    The earliest dispute between the castes seems to have occurred in Madras in 1652-53, which was settled by an award wherein the name of Chennapatnam first occurs in an official document. The result of this award was that the eastern half of the Hindu town came to be generally occupied by left-hand castes and the western half by the right-hand ones.

    For a long time the country round Madras was in a great turmoil on account of the rebellion of Mir Jumla against his Golconda master and also because of the general weakness of the Golconda Sultan who was finally destroyed by the Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb in 1687. During these troubled years, Madras was frequently threatened by the exactions of successive local chiefs who ruled over the Poonamalle region on behalf of the Muhammadans. The worst of them was Bala Rao who stopped the Indian traders coming to Madras, raised the customs duties they had to pay at the Great Mettah where there was a regular customs-house and thus increased the prices of grains and other provisions. On one occasion the Muslim troops entered the settlement and burnt some houses. Later, Madras had to encounter a regular siege for several months at the hands of Bala Rao and his colleague, Tupaki Krishnappa Naick. Fort St.George was reduced from the rank of a Presidency to an Agency, temporarily in 1655, owing to a fit of economy that seized the Directors of the Company at the time. However, it was restored to its Presidency status three years later; and this it has continued to enjoy ever since. The Dutch were envious of the growing prosperity of the City and both the Dutch and the Golconda Sultan had an eye on San Thome. On one occasion the English expected that San Thome would be ceded to them by the Portuguese instead of Bombay, for whose cession negotiations were then going on.

    Sir Edward Winter, Governor (1661-65), got a permanent agreement regarding the English right to Madras. Winter was a bold and bad man who imprisoned his successor in office, Fox-Croft, on the ground that the latter was of decidedly Puritanical and anti-Royalist tendencies and could be suspected of having made treasonable utterances against King Charles II. He was in enjoyment of his usurped authority for nearly three years and during all this time Fox-Croft languished in prison. Even when punishment finally came to him, he contrived to make his own terms and stayed on in Madras for a few more years after he was deposed. Fox-Croft, the unfortunate imprisoned Governor, was the first to he given the title of Governor of Fort St.George a title which has been transmitted to a long line of distinguished successors. The title came to be given by an accident, as it were. The Company’s letter constituting the Madras Agent and Council ‘Our Governor and Agent and Consul in Fort St. George’ and empowering them to execute judgment in all cases, civil and criminal, was occasioned by the difficulty that arose as to the jurisdiction of the Madras officials over capital cases. This difficulty was solved by the new title and ‘ to modern occupants of the gubernatorial chair it is probably unknown that they owe their designation to a Madras murder.’chennai directory

    San Thome

    Madras and San Thome were generally on friendly terms. The latter fell into the hands of the Sultan of Golconda in 1662 and was taken possession of by the French ten years later. But they were not to enjoy it for long. It once again went back into the hands of Golconda and the English urged the Sultan to demolish the fortifications of the place as they were afraid that the French might recover the Fort either by force or by purchase. One important consequence of the French surrender of San Thome was the withdrawal of Martin, the Captain of the French soldiers, with a few followers to Pondicherry, where he founded the famous settlement that was to have a glorious, but short-lived, prominence in the next century.chennai directory

    The fame of San Thome rests upon its close association with the Apostle St. Thomas, who is declared to have suffered martyrdom at St.Thomas’ Mount and to have been buried originally at San Thome, that it, in Old Mylapore, part of which now lies under the encroaching sea. There is not much doubt that there existed at the place a Christian colony from the early centuries of the Christian era. It was known to the Arab travellers and geographers of the ninth and tenth centuries as Betumah, that it, the house or Church of St. Thomas. And from this word was derived the name San Thome. To this Church it is said that King Alfred the Great of England sent some emissaries about 883 A.D. Subsequently, Persian merchants who were Nestorian Christians, established a Church of their own at the place, built a Chapel over the tomb of St. Thomas and a monastery on the top of St. Thomas’ Mount. The place was visited by Marco Polo, the famous Venetian traveller, who touched the Madras coast towards the close of the thirteenth century. But the town decayed later on; and its revival was the work of the Portuguese who settled therein in 1522. As the Portuguese were rebuilding the old Chapel, they stumbled on the grave of the Apostle, besides which they built a small church which has now grown into the San Thome Cathedral.

    The Luz Church situated a mile to the west of the Cathedral is associated with an ancient tradition, that some mariners saw a light beckoning to them from that place when they tossed about in a storm near the coast. Steering towards this guiding light, they landed safely, and following it came to the spot where the church is built. The church is thus dedicated to ‘Our Lady of Light’. But it was not built in 1516 as the inscription on its base claims but only a few decades later.

    St. Thomas Mount and Little Mountchennai directory

    At St. Thomas’ Mount the Portuguese came across the famous Bleeding Cross, that is, a Stone Cross bearing an Old Pehbir inscription, with some spots on it resembling, blood stains; and a church was erected at the place, the Stone Cross being built in the wall behind the Altars. The inscription is similar to that engraved round the Crosses found in some of the Syrian Christian churches on the Malabar Coast. In those days a beacon fire was lighted nightly on the Mount for the benefit of mariners. In the church itself, which is dedicated to our Lady of Expectation, there is a picture of the Holy Virgin and Child which is believed to be one of the seven portraits painted by St. Luke and brought by St. Thomas to India.

    Between St. Thomas’ Mount and Madras and a little to the east of the southern end of the Saidapet Bridge is the Little Mount or Chinnamalai. This contains a cave to which St. Thomas is said to have fled when he was pursued by his persecutors. A church was built in 1551 at this place by the Portuguese. There is pointed out here a cleft in the rock where St. Thomas caused a spring of fresh water to gush forth, by hitting the stone with his staff, and the multitude who came to hear his preach quenched their thirst therein. The water was believed to have had healing properties and the church itself is dedicated to Our Lady of Health. Both the Big and Little mounts are outside the limits of Madras City, But the Big and Little Mounts are outside the limits of Madras city. But they have been closely associated with Madras both in the past and in the present epoch.

    Mylapore

    Mylapore, a village adjacent to San Thome to its west, has always gone hand in hand with the latter and was included in its jurisdiction. It is a place of ancient importance and has long been famous as a Siva Shrine. It is closely associated with Thiruvalluvar, the great author of the Kural, and also with the activities of the Saiva Nayanar, the great Gnanasambandar. The temple of Sri Kapaleesvarar contains a sculpture depicting one of the miracles wrought by Gnanasambandar. There are bronze statues within the temple of the 63 Saiva Nayanmars, in whose honour a grand festival is conducted annually. Mylapore is also associated with one of the Vaishnavite Alvars. After the Portuguese town of San Thome came into being Mylapore was absorbed in it. When San Thome fell into the hands of the Mussalmans, a number of its rich Portuguese merchants settled in Madras. The English themselves endeavoured to get that place for a nominal rent from the Sultan of Golconda. After the latter’s kingdom was annexed by the Mughal Empire in 1687, the Mughal Governor of the Carnatic threatened to develop it at the expense of Madras, frequently visited and resided in it and built a rampart round the town. The place continued under the rule of the Mussalmans with very little trade and a decaying population till 1749 when it was taken possession of by the English in the name of their protégé, Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah.

    First Attempts at Conservancy

    The gradual growth of Madras, though interrupted from time to time, was steady and vigorous. It was when Governor Streynsham Master was in power (1678-81) that the first serious attempt was made at the conservancy of the streets. A scavenger was appointed who was empowered to collect a house-tax and to remove the dirt and filth of the town and draw up a roll of the houses. This post was held by a civil servant of high rank. Watchmen were appointed for going round the streets in the nights. Tavern-keepers, places of entertainments and others had to be licensed. The Indian inhabitants had long fought vigorously against tax saying that it was their privilege to be exempted from any taxation.chennai directory

    Master also framed rules for the better administration of justice. Two English official were appointed as Choultry Justices to administer justice to the Indian inhabitants and their number was increased subsequently. The Governor himself began to sit as a Judge thus forming an Appellate Court.

    St. Mary’s Church in the Fort

    It was also in Master’s time that the church of St. Mary within the Fort was built. The foundation was laid on Lady’s Day in 1678 and hence the Church was named St. Mary’s in honour of the Blessed Virgin. It was finished in 1680 and was consecrated on the 28th of October that year. It stands much the same as it was when built, except for the spire and the tower which were subsequently added. It is full of mementoes of men who have helped to make Madras history; and its narrow yard is literally paved with tombs of various ages and with inscriptions in several languages. The stones were removed from the stately tombs which were erected over the graves of dead Englishmen in the old English burying-place of the settlement which lay in the present Law College compound.

    The Vestry of the Church was organised at the same time and it continued to exist down to 1805. It conducted a Charity School which subsequently became the nucleus of the Male and Female Orphan Asylums. After Master’s time there was a reorganisation of the Police arrangements in the so-called Black Town which had grown up close to the White Town and which occupied the site of the present northern glacis of the Fort, part of the western glacis and the grounds of the Law College and the High Court. During the Governorship of Mr.Yale (1687-92) a Mayor and Corporation were instituted in the City by a Charter of the Company under permission from King James.chennai directorychennai directory,chennai directory,chennai directory,chennai director,chennai directory,vvchennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directoryvchennai directorychennai directorychennai directorychennai directoryvv

    Acquisition of Suburban Villages

    It was in Yale’s time that the Mughul authority spread over the Carnatic. He was very anxious about the safety of Madras from Mughul injury. And he applied to the Nawab Zulfiker Khan, the Mughal General for the free Grant of the villages of Egmore, Purasawalkam and Thondiarpet. These villages were at first rented out and were directly taken over by Government in 1720. They were known in the English records of the time as the “Three Old Towns”. Triplicane was the earliest acquisition and came first into English occupation in 1668 though it was resumed a few years later by the Mussalmans. It was only in 1672 that Triplicane was definitely given over to the English for an annual rent of fifty pagodas. Including Triplicane these three villages were known as the ‘Four Old Towns’. Shortly afterwards, the English petitioned for permission to occupy five other villages in the vicinity composing of Tiruvatiyoor, Kathiwakam, Nungambakkam, Vyasarpady and Sathangadu. These places were given over by a Mughal firman in 1708 and they were hence forward known as the ‘Five New Towns’.

    Wedged in between Egmore and Purasawalkam which had been acquired by the English, were two small villages, viz., Periamet where the Mussalman authorities collected tolls, and Vepery, which were acquired by the English only in 1742; along with Vepery the Company got Perambore, Pudupakkam, Ernavore and Sadyan Kuppam together with a confirmation of the right of coining Arcot rupees and pagodas. San Thome and Mylapore continued to be under Mussalman rule till 1749 when Madras was restored to English after three years of occupation by the French who captured it in 1746. Soon after they got back Madras, the English contrived to occupy San Thome in the name of their new ally, Nawab Muhammad Ali who was opposed by Chanda Saheb, the ally and champion of the French.

    Governor Thomas Pitt

    From the time of Governor Yale down to the outbreak of war with the French in 1746, the growth of Madras was continuous and was seen not only by the expansion of its trade and wealth but also in the steady political power of the English. Of the Governors of the period the most famous was Thomas Pitt who was originally a bold interloper and in the opinion of the Directors, a desperate fellow. Pitt was Governor for the unusually long term of 11 years-1698-1709- and his term of office proved to be the ‘Golden Age’ of Madras. He resisted the demands of the Mughal Nawab, successively acquired the five new villages and built fortified walls round the Old Black Town. It was in his time that the Island ground was embanked, drained and improved. He also provided for an accurate survey of the City with a view to the allocation of definite streets and quarters for the right and left-hand factions. Copies of his map and plan are now available. They show us that the Old Black Town was more than a mile and a half in circumference and various gates in its walls led into the suburbs of Muthialpettah to the north and Peddunaicken-pettah to the west. A canal ran along the present Broadway which separated Black Town and Muthialpettah from Peddunaickenpettah.

    Weavers’ Villages-Collettpettah and Chintadripettah

    As trade increased the number of weavers and painters had steadily to be increased. Governor Collett (1717-20) founded a new pettah near Tiruvottiyur which was called, as the inhabitants desired, after him as Collettpettah. The inhabitants were mostly weavers and painters of cloth which the Company required for export to Europe. The present suburb if Washermanpet lying to the north of George Town grew up about the same time. The Company had in their employment a large number of washers, bleachers and painters of cloth which came from the weavers’ looms. A large open space and plenty of good water were necessary for their work. They were first settled in Peddunaickenpettah to the north; but they complained that the water of the river was not pure. They were subsequently removed to the north of the Black Town where the ground was rich in fresh springs. The place where they settled was, therefore, known as Washerman Town and its present appellation of Washermanpet is apt, as in the case of Collettpettah, to convey a wrong meaning as to its origin. The growth of these suburbs indicates a period of great prosperity in the cotton trade which was the chief investment of the Company. The Dubashes and chief merchants of the Company engaged in the supply of cotton goods to the Company rose to great prosperity. One of them be name Alangatha Pillai founded and built the Ekambareswarar Temple, and another of them, Sunkurama had a large garden in the bend of the Cooum river south of Periamet which was taken over in 1735 for a new weavers’ village known as Chintadripettah. By that time Sunkurama had fallen into disgrace and was succeeded by his colleague Thambu Chetty as the chief merchant. Government resolved in October 1734 to erect a weaving town in the site of Sunkurama’s garden and to permit only spinners, weavers, washers, painters and the necessary attendants of the temple to settle in the village. A cowl was granted on these terms and Bemala Audiappa Narayana helped in the peopling of the village, which grew to contain nearly two hundred and fifty families within two years after its foundation.

    The Carnatic fell into confusion after 1740 when the Mahrattas invaded it. Several disputed successions to the Nawabship occurred, out of which emerged Anwaruddin Khan. During all these years the English were seriously engaged in strengthening the Fort, particularly its western walls. The Fort as it had grown up by now enclosed the houses of the White Town, but was much smaller than the present Fort. On the north the houses of the Old Black Town encroached almost up to the very wall, the river on the west ran very much more to the east than it does now. In 1743 plans were prepared for enlarging the Fort on the west side and for diverting the course of the river further west. This diversion was not, however, immediately carried out.

    French Occupation of the City and its Results

    The French capture of Madras by Labourdonnais in 1746 is a great event in the history of the City. The French were in occupation of the City for three years till August 1749. They planned to retain it permanently. They demolished the Indian houses of Old Black Town which adjoined the north wall of the Fort and formed a glacis with the debris. The southern portion of the Old Black Town was consequently destroyed. Soon after Madras came back into English possession, the Company began plans for remodeling and strengthening the Fort. The river on the west side was diverted to its present course, and its old bed was built up and included in the Fort. The west wall was strengthened with bastions which were named after the Governor George Pigot, Major Lawrence and Nawab Muhammad Ali Wallajah. The temple of Chennakesavaperumal which stood in Old Black Town, was also demolished and compensation was given by Government and a new site was offered in China Bazaar where Manali Muthukrishna Mudaliar, the Dubash of Governor Pigot, built the new temple now known as the Town temple. He became the first warden of this temple whose management has continued to remain in his family. Count Lally’s siege of Madras (December 1758 to February 1759) the next crisis in the History of the City was successfully resisted by the English; but they abandoned Old Black Town and the suburbs which were occupied by the French; while the Fort itself was a sand wreck after the siege. Black Town was ruthlessly plundered by the enemy who also burnt the village of Chepauk to the south of the mouth of the Cooum and lying between the Island and Triplicane.

    Building of the Black Town Walls

    After the siege, the Directors resolved that the Fort should be rebuilt upon the most modern plan. Hyder Ali of Mysore was growing powerful at the time. In 1767 he made an expedition to the neighbourhood of Madras, plundered San Thome and burnt several villages in the neighbourhood. Two years later, he again appeared before Madras with a formidable cavalry force. Hyder’s raids threw the inhabitants into a state of panic; and the result was the erection of permanent walls to protect the New Black Town, as Muthialpettah and Peddunaickenpettah together came to be called, after the demolition of the Old Black Town. The rampart walls that were constructed covered the northern and western fronts of modern George Town and ran a course of 3½ miles, being equipped with bastions and flanking works at intervals. The north wall presented a slight convex front towards Tondiarpet. The west wall ran on close to the North River (Cochrane Canal). On the outer side of the walls the ground was cleared for a width of six hundred yards and afforded a field for fire. These spaces were known as Esplanades. The southern part of the Western Esplanade was converted in the middle of the nineteenth century into the People’s Park, and the northern part into Salt Cotaurs. The walls had numerous gates, of which the one known as Elephant Gate still had its name preserved for the site on which it stood. Wall Tax Road also is reminiscent of those times. It was designed to have a good road running on the side of the western rampart and its cost was met be means of a tax which was imposed on the house-holders nearby. But the tax was never collected through an officer, known as the Collector of Town Wall Tax, was appointed for the purpose. It is also said that arches in the western wall were occupied by Indians who paid a rent or tax and hence arose the name of Wall Tax Road which runs for two miles and was close to the western wall. Debtor-prisoners were confined in the bastions in the north-west angle of the wall, which criminals were put in another bastion in the northern wall; and even to-day the street next to the demolished north wall, of which some remnants remain in the compound of the Royapuram Hospital is called the Old Jail Street. The walls were pulled down about the middle of the nineteenth century when swords had to be turned into ploughshares. The remnants of its bastions and curtains that remain on the north indicate how substantially the construction work was made. The walls were finished about 1772.

    Final Formation of the Fort

    About the same time the work of remodeling the Fort was also finished. Many of the private inhabitants who lived within it were compelled to sell their houses, and barracks for British troops were built on their sites. The Fort in its enlarged shape was completed in 1783 when Lord Macartney was Governor. This enlarged Fort stands perfect to-day as a typical example of the ideal fortress of the eighteenth century. It is the last of the four phases of growth which was settlement has passed through. It began as a small castle of Cogan and Day which was enclosed in a square of bastioned walls. In the next stage the White Town inhabited by English, Portuguese and Armenian merchants which grew round the nucleus came to be protected by walls. This survived almost up to the date of French Capture of Madras in 1746. The filling up of the old bed of the North River, the extension of the west front of the Fort and the consequent increase in its area formed from third stage. The last stage was completed in 1783 when the outer walls were totally rebuilt and provided with ample out-works, glacis, reveling and lunettes.

    It was in this epoch also that most of the buildings and barracks in the western portion of the Fort were erected. The Palace Street, so called because Nawab Wallajaj first planned to have a place erected for himself in that street, the Arsenal, the Hanover square and the Western Barracks were all constructed about this time. The streets in the eastern side of the Fort were also altered. Lord Pigot who was twice Governor of Madras, distinguished himself by strengthening the fortifications and defending it successfully against Lally. The weakness of his successors led to his reappointment for a second time as Governor. But he quarreled violently with his colleagues, was imprisoned by them and died in confinement. He was buried in a nameless grave in St. Mary’s Church in the Fort.

    Modern George Town comes into Shape

    In the time of Governor Macartney (1781-85) Black Town assumed the shape that it now has. There was a low-lying region between Muthialpettah and Peddunaickenpettah along which ran a drainage channel. This channel was filled up and the waste land on both its sides were raised; and gradually houses came to be built over the whole area. The main north and south street which traverses this area known as Popham’s Broadway is commemorative of the efforts of Mr.Popham who reclaimed all this region. It was also now that the inhabitants of Peddunaickenpettah living in the south and south-east portions of it were removed elsewhere as their houses were considered to be dangerously near the Fort. The ground which was somewhat elevated was cleared and was converted into an Esplanade of the Fort and is now occupied by the Ordnance Lines. The removal of these houses, accounts for the present curiously broken outline of Peddunaickenpettah on its south-east side and for the abrupt termination of some of its north and south streets.

    Mr. Popham also submitted a plan for the establishment of a regular police force for Madras and for the building of direct and cross drains in every street. He also advocated measures for the naming and lighting of streets, for the regular registration of births and deaths and for the licensing of liquor, arrack and toddy shops. A Board of Police assisted by a Kotwal was subsequently formed. The Kotwal was to be the officer of the markets under the Superintendent of Police. For long, there was difficulty about the collecting of quit rent and scavenger’s duty and it was held that the Company had no power to impose these taxes. A Parliamentary Act of 1792 finally gave the Company the power to levy municipal taxes in the City and it was resolved to order an assessment of five per cent to be collected from the inhabitants on the estimated annual rents of the houses. It was now that the Town cleaning duties were entrusted to the Officers known as Surveyors and Collectors, under whom conservancy work was to be done by contract.


    FAIRS AND FESTIVALS

    Fairs and festivals are held in the different parts of the city throughout the year. The festivals associated with Hindu temple are more than 500 in a year.  Apart  from  the traditional  fairs  and  festivals,  modern  fairs  such  as exhibitions and national festivals like Independence day and Republic day  are  celebrated  in the city. following are some of the  important  festivals celebrated in the city which are attended by thousands of devotees from far  and near.

    • The   Brahmotsavam  (including the Arupathumoovar festival)  of  Kapaleeswarar temple located in Mylapore is celebrated in the Tamil month of Panguni (March-April)  and  it lasts for ten days. A big fair is held near  the  temple.  The floating festival held in January – February in Mylapore is also very popular.

    • Of all the festivals celebrated in the Parthasarathy temple in Triplicane, the most  important  is  the Vaikunta  Ekadari  observed  (December-January).  

    • The Brahmothsavam  in the month of Chithirai is celebrated for ten days.  The  car festivals  falls  on  the  seventh days and is attended  by  more  than  50000 devotees.  

    • The  Kirthigai  (Karthigai asterism) day every month is  a  day  of festival  in  the  Vada  Palani Andavar temple  in  Kodambakkam.  

    • The   annual festivals are Skanda Sashti in Ayppari month and Uthiram in Panguni month. the floating  festivals  during  the Panguni Uthiram is also  well  attended.  

    • The Kandaswami  temple  in  Sowcarpet  celebrate twenty festivals  in  a  year.  

    • The Jathirai  festival  in  Adhi Mottaiamman temple attracts  a  large  number  of crowds.  

    • Among  the several festival celebrated by  the  Siva-Vishnu  temples important  ones  are  Navarathri, Sivarathri, Vaikunta  Ekadasi  and  Sri  Ram Navami.

    • The  Muslim festivals also attract crowds and give rise to fairs in the  city.  The  Ramzan, Bakrid and Muharram  are the important festivals, which is observed  by  thousands ofdevout Muslims in various parts of the city.

    • The Easter, Christmas and the New year  are  marked  by impressive festivities in the  protestant  and  catholic churches  in the city like St. Thomas and the Cathedral  Church in Santhome.

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Fitness center in Madurai

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Pattinathar Temple in chennai

Pattinathar Temple in chennai

Moolavar : Pattinathar
Thala Virutcham : Vilwa
Theertham : Bay of Bengal
Old year : 500 years old
Place : Tiruvottriyur
District : Chennai
State : Tamil Nadu
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Pattinathar Temple : The temple is on the shores of Bay of Bengal. There is no tower or vimanas. The saint is facing the sea from a separate shrine in a Linga form on a square peeta-stage. The traditional Nagabarana (the divine snake jewel on the head of Linga) is also placed on the idol. The saint is considered as Lord Shiva and pujas performed accordingly. Pradosha pujas (puja on the 13th day of new moon or full moon days between 4.30 p.m. to 6.00 p.m.) Shivrathri puja in February –March and Aipasi Annabishekam in October-November are devotionally followed in the temple.
Sri Nandikeswara is opposite Lord Shiva shrine, Lord Vinayaka and Lord Muruga are in the front mandap. Sri Chandikeswara graces from the prakara. Saint Pattinathar belongs to Uthirada Star, hence pujas are offered to Him on the star days each month.
Pattinathar was an ascetic. People praying to him do not promise anything as prayer commitment but only place their grievances at His feet. They offer later what they wish or have. It is said that promising prayer commitment would have adverse results as Pattinathar was a Sanyasi.
The entrance of the temple is not tall. The devotee has to enter bending the neck as a mark of humility. There are 27 lamps in His shrine representing 27 stars. Ghee is used to light the lamps. The sacred ash used for the abishek is offered as Prasad. It is also said that Kubera the Lord of Wealth was born as Pattinathar and hence the belief that praying here would bring in prosperity.

Location : Tiruvottriyur is 12 km far from Chennai Egmore, 7 km from Chennai Central and 22 km from Chennai Koyambedu. From beach railway station buses are available. Buses are available from other ends too directly.

Near By Railway Station : Chennai Egmore

Near By Airport : Chennai

Accomodation : 
Taj Coromandel: +91-44-5500 2827
Lee Royal Meridian: +91-44-2231 4343
Chola Sheriton: +91-44-2811 0101
The Park: +91-44-4214 4000
Connemara: +91-44-5500 0000
Rain Tree: +91-44-4225 2525
Ashoka: +91-44-2855 3413
Guru: +91-44-2855 4060
Kanchi: +91-44-2827 1100
Shrimani: +91-2860 4401
Abhirami: +91-44 2819 4547
Kings: +91-44-2819 1471.

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Architects in Mylapore Chennai – 600 004  

Aswathanarayana & Eswara
Category: Architects
Address: 117 (Old No 61), Royapettah High Road
Mylapore
Chennai – 600 004
Landline Number(s): 044-2498 3324
044-2498 0149
Fax Number: 044-2498 4860
Some Great Things That An Architect In Chennai Can Do For You

Architects can be of great use in both construction of new buildings and remodelling sites as well. Unlike builders, architects spend quality time in improving the visual and functional aesthetics of a building. Moreover, finding good architects isn’t that difficult too. All you need to do is hop onto the lists here and select the best architectural service providers near your locality. Top architects and architect firms in Chennai have registered themselves with us. You can find everything from their contact number, office address, information regarding their services etc. here. Find the right one that best fit according to your budget and requirement and make you job done with ease.

good Architects in Gopalapuram Chennai – 600 086

Arvind Varuna Associates
Category: Architects
Description: Provides Services for Architecture and Interior Design.
Address: 9, 6th Street
Gopalapuram
Chennai – 600 086
Landline Number(s): 044-2811 6247
044-2811 6257
044-2811 6267
Fax Number: 044-2811 6147
Category: Architects
Description: Provides Services for Architecture and Interior Design.
Address: 9, 6th Street
Gopalapuram
Chennai – 600 086
Landline Number(s): 044-2811 6247
044-2811 6257
044-2811 6267
Fax Number: 044-2811 6147

Architect in Gopalakrishna Road chennai-Tnagar

Architecture Incorporated
Category: Architects
Description: Architecture, Interior Design, Landscape Design, Urban Design, Industrial Design.
Address: 11, Gopalakrishna Road
T Nagar
Chennai – 600 017
Landline Number(s): 044-2815 2953
044-4207 1318
044-4212 4333
Fax Number: 044-2815 2953
Web Site URL: http://www.ArchInc.in

Architectural Management Services-Architect in chennai Thiruvanmiyur Chennai -600 041

Architectural Management Services
Category: Architects
Description: Architecture and Planning, Interior Design, Project Management, Sustainable Building Design, Urban Design, Conservation and Planning as needed in Residential, Commercial, Institutional and Industrial Applications.
Address: 3, 3rd Cross Street
Dr. Radhakrishnan Nagar
Thiruvanmiyur
Chennai – 600 041
Landline Number(s): 044-2452 2237
044-2452 2663
Fax Number: 044-2452 2664
Web Site URL: http://www.AMSArchitects.com
n architect designs buildings and structures. Some specialize in home design, while others work in the commercial building sector. Common requirements to enter the profession include a bachelor’s or master’s degree in architecture, a paid internship and successful completion of the Architect Registration Exam, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Typical Workplace
Most architects work for architectural firms and spend much of the day in an office. Office time is spent meeting with clients to discuss plans, create renderings and collaborate with colleagues on projects. About 20 percent of architects were self-employed as of 2012, according to the BLS. Some self-employed architects commute to their own offices, while others may work out of a home office.
Site Visits
The non-office portion of an architect’s job is usually spent at the job location. When a project is located nearby, architects may leave the office periodically to stop by the project site. For distant projects, an architect may spend a few days on the road at a site as a project starts or evolves. Location visits often involve checking in with building developers and engineers to ensure the client’s objectives are met, review the progress of projects, and check on any potential obstacles in construction.
Work Schedule
Your schedule can vary as an architect, but most work full-time. Many architects work long hours when in the middle of a time-sensitive project, according to the BLS. If a project runs behind or requires in-progress modifications, you might have to work long days to get the work back on track. For self-employed architects, long hours are also common because you not only perform technical work; you also have to operate a business. The business operation includes hiring and training workers, managing books, paying bills, collecting money due and keeping up with necessary taxes and licenses.
Other Working Condition Factors
One advantage of being an architect is that the hours are sometimes flexible, especially when you don’t have urgent project deadlines. This flexibility allows you to work in personal or family commitments around your meetings and drawing time. Architects at larger, geographically-dispersed firms may have to travel more frequently than those who work for small, local operations. Architects often face intense deadline pressure to complete projects on time and on budget.

Archi Tec Allied Architect in chennai t Nagar

Archi Tec Allied
Category: Architects
Description: We have been the professional consultants for many established Builders from Chennai. We diversified to interior Design and commercial projects from 1995 and have been in the panel of Architects & Consultants for many nationalized Bank and Institutions.
Address: 1, Masilamani Street
T Nagar
Chennai – 600 017
Landline Number(s): 044-2435 2468
044-4206 8884

Anandan Associates Architects chennai

Anandan Associates
Category: Architects
Description: Anandan Associates with Architect, Interior designer and Landscape architect – Mr. P N Anandan, B.Arch.,M.Arch., with 10 Years of Professional & Practical experience with other firms from 2001-2010., and Founder of Anandan Associates from Jan’5-2011.
Address: I-10, Baid Mehta Complex
183, Anna Salai
Little Mount
Saidapet
Chennai – 600 015
(Between Checkers Hotel & A.G. Church)
Landline Number(s): 044-4311 4547
Mobile Number: 98847 93695

Anameka Architects & Designers chennai

Anameka Architects & Designers
Category: Architects
Description: We Specialise in Architectural Design, Interior Design, Product Design, Landscape Design, Urban Design and Planning, Project Management.
Address: 4/24, Saraswathy Street
Mahalingapuram
Chennai – 600 034
Landline Number(s): 044-4213 9961
044-6518 6594
Fax Number: 044-4232 1995

Amer & Ani Architects chennai

Amer & Ani Architects
Category: Architects
Description: Architecture, Interior Design, Sustainability Design, Project Management, Structural Engineers
Address: H-97/S-1, 1st Sea Ward Road
Valmiki Nager
Thiruvanmiyur
Chennai – 600 041
Mobile Number: 95000 42904
Web Site URL: http://www.AmerAniArchitects.com
Category: Architects
Description: Architecture, Interior Design, Sustainability Design, Project Management, Structural Engineers
Address: H-97/S-1, 1st Sea Ward Road
Valmiki Nager
Thiruvanmiyur
Chennai – 600 041
Mobile Number: 95000 42904
Web Site URL: http://www.AmerAniArchitects.com

Amar Architecture & Designs P Ltd   chennai

 Amar Architecture & Designs P Ltd   chennai

Category: Architects
Description: An architectural and design firm providing total infrastructure design solutions. With high end technology and software we facilitate our design team in achieving the best of creative designs.
Address: AA-47, 2nd Street
3rd Main Road
Shanthi Colony
Anna Nagar
Chennai – 600 040
Landline Number(s): 044-2620 4642
044-2628 6886
Amar Architecture & Designs P Ltd   chennai/Amar Architecture & Designs P Ltd   chennai/Amar

Alpha Associates Architects

Alpha Associates Architects

Category: Architects
Description: Architectural Planning, Concept Drawings, Working Drawings for various levels, 3D Elevation, Site Layout, Landscape Drawing, Electrical Layout, Plumbing Layout.
Address: 4, Sangothi Amman Koil Street
Sembakkam
Chennai – 600 100
Landline Number(s): 044-4281 1283